How to Motivate Introverted Employees

Do you have an employee who gave the first impression that they are a very thoughtful, creative, and smart person?  Even though this person can produce high-quality work from time to time, they seem a bit distant and uncommunicative or even arrogant…

The chances are your new employee is an introvert!  You wish there was a way to motivate them and make that employee more productive and communicative.  The solution is first to understand how and why they are different, to realize that their minds are made-up differently from the mind of an extrovert.  

Introversion versus extroversion:

The basic definition of introversion versus extroversion is that extroverts are more comfortable with and prefer to direct their mental energy toward the outside world, other people, or objects.  In contrast, introverts tend to prefer living in the world of their minds and their thoughts.  When introverts are forced into a team or a very crowded environment for too long, the situation will deplete their energy, and they will become very drained. 

Introverts gain energy from the comfort of their inner thoughts and feelings

Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was the first to distinguish extroversion and introversion, the two major orientations of personality.  We continue to learn from Jung’s findings and ongoing psychoanalytical research leads to greater understanding of personality types to help managers in the workplace.

Cognitive sciences have discovered two main ways that introverted minds are different:

1.    Introverts process incoming information more slowly because they filter information thoroughly before considering the input. Their neural pathway to process information is longer than that of extroverts.  This is because they use the parasympathetic side of the brain, and the pathways are much longer, meaning they need more time for the information to be processed.  Hence introverts can easily become over-stimulated with too much external information from the environment. 

Scientists can detect the differences between introvert and extrovert babies as early as four months old. Extroverts easily take stimulation because the two parts of the brain they use have a much smaller pathway than introverts. This neurological difference explains why extroverts tend to be active and action-oriented, actively seeking out stimulating experiences. While, in contrast, introverts tend to be more idiosyncratic in their preference for a slower and manageable pace.

Scientists can detect introverted babies as early as 4-month old!

2. The second difference is that because the part of the brain used to process information and the part of the brain connected to communication and processing verbal input are quite separated in introverts.  Hence, they can go on for long periods of time without talking or communicating with other people.   Conversely, an extrovert will get the juices flowing, think, and speak at the same time.  They will enjoy brainstorming with other people, thinking and talking simultaneously.  

So, when you know these differences, you can begin to understand why there are behavioral differences between introvert and extrovert team members.  You see, it’s not that your introverted employee is having an attitude or trying to be distant on purpose; it’s just how their brain works.

How to spot an introverted employee

They tend to be

  1. Calm: He or she exudes a calming presence.
  2. Listeners: They tend to listen more than they talk.  This is especially noticeable in a team meeting when they appear more reflective.
  3. Having subdued Dress Style: Introverts tend to dress subtly.  Their clothing is usually understated, preferring dark colors.  They don’t want to stand out too much.  Compare this with extroverted employees who dress in more vibrant, outstanding colors and styles.

In fact, a lot of people think that introverts are a minority in the population.  However, many surveys have shown that introverts and extroverts are actually about 50/50 in a population.

The reason they seem to be the minority is that they don’t compete with the extroverts for attention.  They don’t speak up that much, preferring to think through the information before voicing an opinion.  They’re the silent half of the population! Another possible explanation is that many introverts would put on an “extrovert mask” on social settings to blend in better (even if it’s pretty draining), giving the impression that there are ways more extroverts to the untrained eyes.

Introverts bring unique strengths to the team

Now you know the differences between introverts and extroverts, you can appreciate the unique strengths of the introverted employee:

  • Because they spend more time reflecting and coming up with something that is truly unique, you can expect their work to be more creative and original.
  • You can also expect them to be thorough and meticulous because they think things through and process a lot of information inside their head before they talk about and show the result.   
  • Lastly, introverts have high moral principles.  Most of the time, introverts value their integrity and authenticity very highly.  It’s a useful attribute to balance the team in the workplace, especially against the fast-paced and cut-throat cultures of many workplaces nowadays.

How to motivate the introverted employee

So, how do you as a manager nurture and encourage better productivity and motivation from an introverted employee?  There are four ways you can do it:

1. When you assign them some work or a task, give them a lot of upfront information so they can process it, but then give them space.  There is this golden rule of two to forty-eight hours, depending on the complexity of the task, that works very well with introverts.  Give your introverted employee the time to think through all the input and process the information. In return, they will give you very thorough and very considered work results. 

2.  The second way you can help them is to complement their weaknesses.  Since they are a more reflective and somewhat individualistic employee, you can support them with your own strengths or that of another team member:

For example, you can provide them with social connections to others in the team.  Because it’s usual that introverts find it challenging to initiate social contact themselves, you can quickly introduce them to other team members.  By introducing them to other stakeholders that are relevant o the project, you help them to be able to touch base and integrate into the team.

You can assist an introverted employee by introducing him or her to other stakeholders/coworkers

3. You can assist them by giving clear deadlines and KPI expectations.  Because introverts are so reflective and usually perfectionistic, they are not good with deadlines.  So, you need to be clear regarding when you need the result.   When you have clear KPIs, they are certain of your expectations, and you can best optimize their thought process and creativity.

4.   Lastly, keep your introverted employee motivated.  Once they have finished their work, it’s important to praise the work, but moderately, because they can easily detect unnecessary and superfluous compliments.   So give them the praise that they deserve for their originality and creativity.  Praise them for their hard work and their meticulousness.  This valid, genuine praise will be a sure way to make sure you keep your introverted employee happy and motivated.

Conclusion

When you are aware of introverted characteristics you are better able to manage introverted team members.  Doing so is a case of considering how the different personality types function.  Introverted employees are motivated by receiving information in advance of meetings, enabling them to think about the content prior to the meeting.  Introverts will also think about ideas and get back to you later with their contributions.  A manager who considers personality types of the whole team are rewarded with wider contributions and a happier team.  

References:

https://www.lifehack.org/412467/why-introverts-are-introverts-because-their-brains-are-different

https://www.insperity.com/blog/managing-introverts/

How to overcome perfectionism

If you are someone who struggles to get started on a project or to complete complicated projects, you may be a perfectionist.  Things can never feel good enough and you may get stuck in a painful spiral of paralysis by analysis! Perfectionism is a much more complex personality trait than many people realize.  Ultimately, it is the desire for perfection that drives the perfectionist mindset. 

The perfectionist personality can be healthy and highly effective when high standards are required.  Healthy perfectionism can drive a person to achieve success, and it can be a valuable trait for overcoming adversity for some, it sets high self-motivation skills.  However, perfectionism is frequently a self-sabotaging behavior; perfectionism can also be a toxic trait that leads to a downward spiral of despair, anxiety, obsession, and feeling overwhelmed.

The root causes of perfectionism

Perfectionism likely stems from genetics or experiences in early childhood.  Opinions vary around whether perfectionism is a learned behavior or if some people are predisposed to perfectionism.  Some believe that a person may be genetically predisposed to perfectionism.  Scientific studies of twins indicate that genetics rather than upbringing and circumstance predispose a person to perfectionism.  The studies discovered that identical twins had a much closer perfectionism score than non-identical twins.   

However, many experts maintain that perfectionism can also be a learned behavior.  When a child is raised with high or even unrealistic parental expectations or those who never felt good enough or who learned to gauge their value by their achievements may learn to embrace perfectionism and show classic perfectionist traits. 

4 strategies to effectively overcome perfectionism:

1.   Acknowledging that perfectionism isn’t perfect

Whether the source of perfectionism is genetic or learned from environmental factors in early childhood, it is frequently a problem to be overcome for the successful completion of projects. Many people believe that the psyche of the perfectionist leads to high standards. However, that is not always the case because the high standards set by perfectionism may come at a price. Perfectionism can be a barrier to effective, efficient productivity. Furthermore, perfectionism is likely to stunt creativity, delay action, and create unnecessary stress for those involved. 

The first approach to dealing with your perfectionism is understanding the perfectionist trait. The better you understand perfectionism, the better you can work through the negative aspects of your perfectionism while utilising the advantages that perfectionism brings.

Perfectionism is a single personality trait that exhibits in three ways:

  • The self-oriented perfection which sets unrealistic aims to be perfect oneself  
  • Other-oriented perfectionism which is imposing unrealistic perfectionism onto others
  • Social perfectionism is having a perception that others require perfection from them.

A manager with perfectionism sets themselves or their team unrealistic goals. Frequently, the hardest part is getting started. The perfectionist usually sees things as success or failure; there is no in between. The problem is that this idealistic outlook means that you do not always live up to the exceptional standards you set yourself. You become so fixated on the end goal and making sure that the end project is perfect that you fail to start the project at all.

2. Pareto Principle or 80/20

As well as overcoming procrastination and failing to get started through over-analysis, there are recognized principles that can help you get started, including the Pareto Principle or 80/20 system. Vilfredo Pareto, an Italian economist, developed the Pareto principle in 1896. Initially relating to the ownership of land in Italy whereby 80% was owned by only 20% of the population. He also observed the principle in other areas of his life. As well as economics, you can observe the phenomenon in sports, business, and time management.

Identify highest-impact priorities first

The Pareto Principle is a system worth investigating when you want to work efficiently. The trick is to work smart, not work hard; working hard and always being busy is not always as effective as working smart. The 80/20 rule is about doing the things that make the most significant difference to the project. In other words, use 20% of your time to achieve 80% of your work. It’s worth reminding yourself of this rule whenever you find yourself procrastinating. You can use the Pareto principle to help with time management. Work out the 20% that will have the most impact on the creativity and effectiveness of the project. Break these down into easily managed sub-tasks that help to streamline the project. By concentrating on the most effective areas for moving the project forward, you take giant leaps forward in productivity.

3. Addressing your exaggerated fear of failure

The element of perfectionism seldom encountered when learning about perfectionism is the fear of failure, yet that is the crucial element of the trait that is stalling you when you need to get started on a project. Perfectionism is subjective, and your idea of perfection as a perfectionist is holding you back!.

Ultimately, your fear of failure is holding you back, so you have to strategize to overcome your fear of failure. Finding the courage and resolve to accept that failure is not something to fear, that it is a normal part of growing the project will empower the perfectionist manager to find balance. Furthermore, mistakes along the way are not failures.

As a perfectionist, your fear of failure is so intense that it could hijack the whole project. It’s what holds you back from getting started. However, by learning to utilize the positives of perfectionism in a way that doesn’t negatively impact the project, you effectively manage your perfectionism and have the opportunity to learn from any mistakes. 

The perfectionist mindset will want you to hold onto the project until it is completely ready and perfect. Yet, it may never seem perfect to you. So what will you do then? 

  • Never complete the project and hand nothing in
  • Let down your team
  • Have nothing to show for all the hours spent procrastinating?

Not handing the work in is the biggest failure of all. The worst-case scenario is that it is preferable to do something, to have something to hand in rather than nothing at all. Correctly managed failure is a prodigious step towards the required outcomes.

How the concept works:

  • Firstly, realize that the only real failure is to hand nothing in. 
  • Realize that the project you perceive as not ready is acceptable to everyone else.
  • Realize that we learn through mistakes. 
  • See failure as a neutral, not a negative. Do this by rewording ‘failure’ when you think of it to ‘learning opportunity’.

4. Gain Continuing Feedback for Approval

Regular reporting to your manager or client is a valuable method to stop procrastinating and get the project started, then throughout the project to prevent your perfectionism from impeding progress. Don’t be afraid to ask a member of your team for advice and input. 

Approval from your manager or the client offers a confidence boost when you are at risk of going over and over the plan for the project or the pitch. To overcome the fear of failure requires letting go of control. Plan to report to your manager or client in steps along the way. Accept that each stage is a step towards completing the project. By asking for and gaining feedback at each stage, you will gain their input and ultimately approval about how the project is progressing. You learn from the feedback; it’s a tool to improve the work. 

Feedback helps you adjust your goals quickly

This methodology is similar to the concept of Minimum Viable Product (“MVP”), which is from Eric Ries’ book ‘Lean Startup’. MVP is a mechanism for validated learning through testing market reactions. MVP is a system built around feedback and validation. You use the feedback and validation at each stage of the project in the same way. You can find out more about MVP here.

When you select a trusted person from the team to co-work with, they can reassure you when the work is good enough. By co-working with another person in the team to go over the draft pitch, you may be surprised that the plan or pitch is actually completely acceptable. As a perfectionist, your mindset is biased to look for and concentrate on what needs fixing, looking for the faults and what is wrong. Another mindset will see all that is good about the work. When their honest opinion is that it is good enough, it probably is ready for submission.

Sharing stages of the project along the way will take some getting used to, but once you conceptualize and accept that doing so is a necessary strategy to get the project underway and to its satisfactory conclusion, you will overcome the resistance. 

By gaining approval when the stages submitted are acceptable, you teach your mind to work in a more accepting way. By accepting feedback when a stage is not quite right, you learn from it. You can’t learn without mistakes. Failure or mistakes are an option in stages; by breaking the project down into stages and acting on the feedback given, you are actually getting closer to achieving the perfect outcome for your manager or client.    When you break the project down in this way, each stage becomes a mini-project in its own right, thus simplifying the project into smaller goals which in turn, help it to become less insurmountable.

Conclusion

Various conceptual methodologies help you when you recognize the pull of perfectionism in your personality. We have shared these highly effective methodologies above. When you realize why the perfectionist’s perceived failure is frequently not failure at all, just part of the natural progression of the project, it’s how you learn from the failures along the way that counts. Being solution focussed and thorough are helpful to a project, but being overzealous about perfectionism is not. When you manage your perfectionism effectively, you actually move closer to the perfectionism that you seek through the mistakes made along the way.

References:

https://www.liquidplanner.com/blog/7-secrets-highly-productive-project-managers/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/basics/productivity

https://asana.com/resources/pareto-principle-80-20-rule

https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2021/12/08/a-review-of-the-minimum-viable-product-approach/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/basics/perfectionism

https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/understanding-hypnosis/202204/overcoming-perfectionism-can-lead-enhanced-achievement

https://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/being-a-perfectionist-may-lie-in-your-genes-scientists-112110500378_1.html

https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/basics/perfectionism

https://allthingstalent.org/2019/07/24/managing-perfectionist-workplace/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ert.21370

https://www.webmd.com/balance/features/how-to-overcome-perfectionism

Perceiving Cognitive Processes: Intuition & Sensing

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality test and framework have popularized the concepts of extroversion, introversions and the cognitive processes that you probably have heard of: Thinking vs Feeling, Intuition vs Sensing. However, these concepts were first introduced in the early 20th century by Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961), a famous Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology.

Understand the fundamentals of these processes is crucial for any further learning and reading of MBTI-related theories and Jungian psychology. At the very least, you will be able to decipher the various functions that make up your personality type and how they interact together to form your unique cognitive patterns.

So let’s dive in to the first pairs of two opposite processes: Intuition and Sensing! If you prefer to watch instead of reading, below is a detailed video explanation I have made on the same topic:

The Definitions

This dichotomy is how we perceive and make sense of information, either in a dominantly concrete or abstract manner.

Concrete information is tangible sensory information, something that you can feel, see, taste, hear. With regards to time, it’s also related to what is here and now, what’s currently going on in society and most immediate environment. Jung termed this process of accessing concrete information: sensing and those with this preference are called sensors

Abstract information is intangible conceptual information, such as reading between the lines, metaphors, meaning behind things, future possibilities … The person likes to think far ahead, using past data to foresee future outcomes and behaviors. The process of using abstract perception is termed Intuition and the people who prefer it over sensing are called intuitives.

We both can use sensing and intuition at will, we have preference to prioritize one over the other. Our preferred side is more dominant, natural, and more developed like the left and right hand. Sensors are generally better at noticing and remembering details of a discussion while intuitives often only remember the key points or vibe. 

 Intuition dominantSensing dominant
How an intuitive and sensor notice a book in bookshop differently (in order
of what the person see first)
Essence of what’s it about
Relevance to me
Seem a bit worn out
Eww one corner is torn off!
The cover design is corny
What is it about?
Example of how an intuitive and sensing person would notice an object differently

According to statistical studies, Sensors significantly outnumber Intuitives in the general population.(70-75% of the population are sensors). It is a big advantage if you are aware of the sensing-intuitive difference because this dichotomy is often a common source of misunderstanding in work and personal relationships.

Sensors look for concrete facts and details and take things as they are and work with them. Intuitives look for abstract patterns and connections because they prefer to deal with the potential of objects, believing that reality can be different or changed, with a hopeful lens for the future. Sensors are more realistic and grounded while intuitives are more idealistic.

When Sensors intuit for too long, they feel impatient with too much theory and abstract thoughts. Meanwhile, intuitives can easily be put off by feeling forced to explain or sequence “every little detail” and would rather get back to entertaining new or interesting possibilities to restore equilibrium to their personality.

Evolutionary and social roles

Many would think that Intuition – the ability for more abstract thinking should exist only in humans or modern humans but the truth is both Intuition and Sensing exist in animals too. A lot of animals are known for their gut feeling or ability to memorise patterns (like salmon or birds that migrate thousands of miles to the places they are born). Of course, abstract thinking is more pronounced in humans because we have developed tools like languages and the concept of time, which significantly boosts our capacity for abstract thinking.

Any MBTI types are capable of both, as mentioned above. The average humans, regardless of types, are capable of comprehending and using way more abstraction than any other species on planet earth. I suspect that the part of Intuition and Sensing in our brains are pretty distinctive and mutually exclusive. However, why don’t we all evolve to become abstract thinkers? 

Because both ways of thinking are important to get any society or any project to function. It is a matter of spectrum. For example, Einstein came up with the E=MC2 formula, which is an example of highly abstract work! But society don’t just exist out of a formula! We need to further “concretize” the abstraction into practical and applicable tasks – the realm of Sensing. We further apply it to build space craft, atomic bomb… then we need people who like to take specific instruction on how to make that part of the space craft, what color is the craft, what materials is it made of… down to the smallest details!

What does it mean for you?

I hope the overview above gives you a more accurate and objective view of the two primary modes of information perception in the population. Keep it in mind when you interact next with other people and see if you can tell if they are sensors or intuitives. Two people of the same types will have an easier time communicating while you should be a bit more mindful of people who do not share the same preference. In essence, intuitive people love abstract and somewhat theoretical discussion while sensing-dominant people want to know the details and concrete steps.

No preference is better than the others. We have our respective social roles and strengths and weaknesses. In particular, if you are an intuitive, you might be the minority but with great potential for big-pictured thoughts and acquisition of abstract and innovative information. If you ever feel misunderstood or broken in some ways cause you are not in tune or don’t care about the latest social trends or norms, it’s ok. There are other people like you and there are exciting discovery ahead when things start to make sense and you will finally discover your true identity and purpose, even if it takes slightly longer than usual.

Introversion vs Extroversion: A Jungian Perspective

Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

While his predecessor, Sigmund Feud, explored the personal unconscious, Carl Jung studied and developed the unconscious further to show the collective unconscious, which represents a form of the unconscious common to mankind as a whole. Carl Jung was the first to distinguish the two major attitudes or orientations of personality – extroversion and introversion. He also identified four basic cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting).

To continue, you can read the article or watch the video version instead:

What is Extroversion and Introversion in Carl Jung’s original work?

This dimension has to do with where we naturally direct our energy and recharge as well as our first order of importance: the inner world vs the outer world:

  • Inner world is made up of thoughts, ideas, memories or so-called the subjective experience that is unique and aware of only by the individual
  • Outer world is made of people and experiences outside of one’s self, or the “objects”

Extraverts have a stronger relationship with the objects of the outer world because they feel a stronger cognitive need for frequent interaction with the world. To Extraverts, what’s going on outside is more important than what’s happening inside. Overall, they are more “action-oriented”.

Introverts have a stronger relationship with the inner world because they feel a stronger cognitive need to connect with their inner subjective experiences. To introverts, what’s happening inside is more important than outside. They are characterised for being more “reflective”.

A good metaphor for extroversion vs introversion is land vs water. You can naturally be comfortable in both, but to an extrovert, the outer world is like the shore and the inner world is like water. They can certainly enjoy staying in water but where do they eventually get respite from? The shore. Vice versa for introverts, the inner world is like the shore and the outer world of objects is the water!

Neurologically, Extraverts and Introverts have different  pathways in the brain for processing information. Extraverts use a shorter pathway and are much faster at processing incoming information from the world. Therefore, they have a higher tolerance for stimulation and tend to actively seek out stimulating experiences. 

Introverts’ pathways are much longer as the information is processed and filtered internally. They are easier to suffer from “information overload” given the same amount of external stimuli. Hence they prefer a slower “reflective” pace and tend to avoid situations that might overwhelm them. This difference is noticeable in babies as young as 4-months old!

According to statistical studies, Extraverts and Introverts are roughly evenly split in the general population, with a few studies finding a slightly greater number of Extraverts

References:

https://mbti-notes.tumblr.com/

The importance of having strong sense of self

What is a sense of self

Your sense of self refers to your perception of the collection of characteristics that define you. It refers to what you think are your personality traits, strength and weaknesses, like or dislikes, moral values and your goals and aspirations…

Why is it important?

Self-confidence

Having a strong sense of self allows you to appreciate both your strengths and weaknesses. It allows you to be at peace and comfortable in your own skin and not too affected by people’s opinions. Otherwise, you will be pushed around and feel bad about things about yourself that you shouldn’t


Motivation and making decisions

Knowing your likes and dislikes from small things like the choice of food to bigger things like the kind of career or life partners you want will allow you to make decisions quickly and confidently. You won’t have to spend time agonising and taking forever to decide or worse, simply choosing jobs or settling for relationships because that’s what your parents or other people choose for you.

And of course, if you have a strong enough “why”, you can go through any “how” to achieve your dream goals and career outcomes.

Relationships

Besides that, your sense of self allows you to be confident in choosing the right friends and partners, but also allows you to communicate and manage relationships better. You won’t have to deal with crippling anxiety when trying to speak up your mind at your jobs. You can become a better leader in the workplace. You can tell your friends or partners clearly what you like or dislike to keep a healthy boundary.

How to build self-identity?

To build a strong sense of self, from young kids to adults, we need time to experience and explore, to fail and learn about what we like, dislike and our strengths and weaknesses. Having the right theory of mind based on rigorous frameworks will also help to allow you to build a more accurate picture of yourself faster.

3 most common INFP Enneagram subtypes

While MBTI is based on how different types process and judge information differently, Enneagram categorizes people based on the patterns of trauma responses and core emotional motivations.

So think of your MBTI type as cognitive habits and patterns, while the enneagram tells you the purpose of these patterns. Two people may have the same tools (the mind) but having different purposes and drive in life will result in two very different characters. Similarly, two MBTI types might be trying to achieve the same purpose in life despite having very different cognitive tools.

Quick definition of INFP personality type


INFP, sometimes called the Mediator or the Idealist, refers to one of the 16 MBTI Types which has a dominant function of Introverted Feeling (meaning individual sense of morality) supported by their auxiliary function of Extraverted Intuition (a.k.a divergent abstracting thinking). They are characterised as gentle, peaceful yet quietly holding down a fountain of passion and optimistic ideals.

The 3 most popular Enneagram types associated with INFP type are Enneagram 4, 9 and 5. To read the full study here, click here. Read more below to find which flavors of INFP do you possess.


Most common: INFP with Enneagram 4 (the Artist)

Enneagram Four, nicknamed the artist or individualist, is described as self-aware, sensitive, and reserved. They are emotionally open, creative, and personable, although they may be grumpy and self-conscious at times. They may feel scornful and exempt from common ways of life if they isolate themselves from others because they feel weak and flawed. Melancholy, self-indulgence, and self-pity are common concerns for them. At their best, they are able to reinvent themselves and change their experiences since they are inspired and very creative. Read more.

To deeply understand their behaviours, we need to understand that Enneagram 4 is in the Heart center (with the primary emotion of shame). They want to feel love and personal significance while avoiding shame (judgement by others). While Enneagram type 2 and 3 also primarily deal with shame, type 4’s unique unconscious coping mechanism is to think of themselves as unique or uniquely defective. This means society can’t judge them on the same standards because they are one of a kind characters with a one of a kind life mission.

Being the most common among INFP, no wonder that  Enneagram 4 INFP fits the typical INFP description so  well: artistic, creative with a deep longing to find and realize their unique paths in life. They make the best poets, artists and entertainers thanks to their keen sense of individualism and emotional sensitivity.

Second most common: INFP with Enneagram type 9 (the Peacekeeper)

The general Enneagram type 9 is characterized as accepting, trustworthy, and steady. They are inclined to go along with others in order to preserve the peace. They want everything to run smoothly and without confrontation, but they may also be complacent, simplifying situations and downplaying any negative aspects. At their Best: tenacious and all-encompassing, they have the ability to unite people and heal conflicts. Read more.

Unlike Enneagram 4, type 9 is in the body triad (together with type 1 and 8), which means they are more driven by a desire for autonomy instead of love. To go a little bit deeper, type 9 is governed by anger (and they resolve by unconscious complete denial of anger) instead of shame. For INFP, this should translate into a more stable and down-to-earth character than the typically turbulent INFP profile because deep down type 9 wants to be left alone instead of seeking love or validation from others like Enneagram type 4 does.

Enneagram type 9 is nicknamed the Peacekeeper. INFPs with this Enneagram are no exception, which means they are happiest and most suited for practical actions instead of creative arts. Think of nurses, peace corp volunteers or even law and security enforcers.

Third most common: INFP with Enneagram type 5 (the Investigator)

Slightly more rare but still the third most common among INFP,  this subtype possesses the inquisitive and powerful mind of Enneagram 5 which is nicknamed the Investigator. Enneagram 5 has the ability to focus and concentrate on very complicated concepts and planning. They might get absorbed with their ideas and imaginative structures while being independent, clever, and ingenious. At their best, type 5 is visionary and pioneering in the pursuit of knowledge. Read more.

While INFP with Enneagram  4 and 9 above are governed by the Heart and Body respectively, Enneagram type 5 is in the Mind triad. This means they care more about security and are more driven by anxiety a.k.a not having enough knowledge to deal with the outside world.

As dark as it sounds, this characteristic anxiety also induces an effortless sense of wonder and curiosity towards the world. People of this type love knowledge and competency. INFP with Enneagram 5 will likely be very suited for serious research and study, especially those that have humanitarian or altruistic bends, like curing diseases or solving hunger.


Of course you can identify with all of these types as we all possess all 9 Enneagram types to different extent. However, you can find your core type much better by pinpointing and relating to the deepest and most overarching pain and desires of the types.

Don’t feel like any of the 3 types above fit? Explore other Enneagram types and decide for yourself at https://www.enneagraminstitute.com/. For INFP, the other Enneagram types are more rare but certainly possible!

The Psychology of Curiosity: an introduction

“Curiosity is the most superficial of all the affections. It has an appearance of giddiness, restlessness, and anxiety (Edmund Burke – an Irish philosopher)”

Speaking of curiosity, people usually come up with the idiom curiosity killed the cat. Why does curiosity seem to be associated with such a negative connotation? Is this also a popular perception of our daily lives and in society? In this article, I shall walk you through the definition, main types of curiosity and how it varies among in individuals

1. Two main types of curiosity

Curiosity is a critical cognitive function that influences human’s behaviors. From a broader perspective, curiosity might be seen as a stepping stone for major developments in science, decision-making, and learning. According to Psychology iresearchnet, curiosity is “a motivational state involving the tendency to recognize and seek out novel and challenging experiences”. 

Since curiosity originates from the thirst for new knowledge, it differs from other positive emotions. For example, joyful feelings such as enjoyment and cheerfulness exist when an individual already has a clear picture with ample necessary information regarding the experience. Curiosity, on the other hand, occurs when someone feels the excitement of explorations with uncertainty, hesitation, and lack of information. 

Curiosity has been classified into two main types: perceptual curiosity (or cognitive curiosity) and epistemic curiosity (or sensory curiosity). The definition of these two types lies in the matters that one is curious about. Cognitive curiosity describes the desire for new information and knowledge, or in general, cognitive matters. 
Sensory curiosity expresses the yearning for new sensations and thrills. This type involves the exploration of novel physical experiences such as do something for a try, go for an adventure, pick up a new sport, etc.

“I have no special talents. I am only passionately curious.”

Albert Einstein

2. State versus trait : the opposing theories on the origin of curiosity

The concept of curiosity is central to motivation. Whether curiosity emerges internally or externally remains a controversial debate. However, this leads to two distinguished classifications of curiosity types: state and trait. Both of the terms determine how and why humans get involved in curious behaviors

a. State curiosity is externally stimulated

When curiosity is used as a description of specific behaviors towards a stimulus, it is known as state curiosity.  This is a state of increased arousal response stimulated by an event or activity in which an individual gains nearly no essential information in advance. It is generally based on an external situation that evokes the curiosity-driven behaviors of an individual.

Suppose you happen to know one of your friends is intrigued by the universe and always asks several questions during the National Geographic Cosmos series, or your family members wonder about the wide-opening window from the neighbor’s house during wintertime. In these cases, state curiosity appears to be the most suitable description for these behaviors. 

2. Trait curiosity comes from internal urge to gain knowledge

The concept that curiosity resides from the inside is called trait curiosity. This relates to people who have a strong interest in acquiring novel knowledge and experience, simply for the sake of learning and self-discovery. For instance, if some of your classmates have the following characteristics: highly self-motivated by discovering theoretical knowledge, being curious and passionate about trying new sports or travelling to new, unknown places, we can say these people have trait curiosity.

3. Different individuals experience different levels of curiosity and the matters they are curious about


When people get older, both the types and degree of their curiosity will change. Human beings, at different ages, are curious about different matters. When we are a little kid, we often drive ourselves to a specific  goal: to understand something better at the moment. This explains why kids ask a lot of questions because they are curious about everything and want to know more about it. 

However, when we grow older, we realize life is much more complicated, and we tend to “extend” the initial question, from “why” to “what if”. We not only want to know about present matters but also want more information about the unknown events that are likely to occur in the near future. 

When ones get older, they tend to draw various possibilities; they yearn for anticipating or foreseeing future events for better preparation. The question “why” indicates a thirst for an answer, an explanation, or could be an initial step for a novel discovery. 

“What if” represents one or several possibilities generated from a fact, or a present event that an individual already knows. “What if” plays a vital role in activating the analysis phase in the process of seeking out new information. After “what if”, people tend to define advantages and disadvantages, solve the problem and compare the results. 

As ones grow older, they expand their scope of knowledge and interests. They look at life from different perspectives; hence their curious behaviors tend to change. The two questions “why” and “what if” tend to be combined and used in different circumstances to know and understand things better

4. The 4 components that power curiosity

Curiosity can be induced  by 4 main factors: novelty, complexity, uncertainty, conflict

Novelty indicates the newness, the unknown things compared to prior experience, learned knowledge, and expectations. For example, a 5-year-old kid reads an astronomy comic book. She realized there is a lot about the universe she did not know before, compared to what she learned at school. The more she reads, the more curious she is about the universe. Reading this astronomy book brought her novel experiences, which evokes her curiosity for the universe.

Complexity is a quality that represents the variety of components within the scope of understanding. The more diverse and challenging the components are, the higher level of complexity.

Uncertainty describes the insecure and doubtful feelings when facing an issue with little knowledge acquired. Uncertainty also displays the presence of multiple possibilities and outcomes with almost no knowledge gained.

Finally, conflict describes the presence of a contradiction between what you feel and what you want to do. For example, a conflict might occur when you find a dark place, and half of you want to enter to find out what it is on the inside, and the other half is getting scared of dark places and the urge to turn away.

The four factors that drive curiosity

5. High in curiosity might mean high in openness, yet low in neuroticism

A study by Furnham and Chamorro (2006) discussed the positive connection between curiosity and the five personality traits. In particular, individuals with high scores in openness tend to be more intellectually curious and have more comfortable attitudes and feelings towards novel or challenging activities.

However, research shows that curiosity has a negative relationship with neuroticism. Research by Renner (2007) indicated a negative correlation between curiosity and the control of anxiety. In other words, highly curious individuals are associated with low levels of anxiety. Curious people tend to take challenges in open attitudes and high readiness to confront unexpected risks. They do not seem to get anxious easily, thus being able to control their anxiety more effectively. 

6. Summary

Curiosity has occupied a vital position in the study of motivation, emotion, and cognition since the origins of psychology. To this day, several basic principles and concepts of curiosity continue to confound science. Yet the importance of curiosity in personal development and daily life activities is undeniable. 

Harnessing curiosity in real-life environments, such as in work and educational settings, plays a fundamental role in growing an individual’s ability and an organization’s overall achievements. Albeit certain pros and cons, stimulating curiosity helps nurture personal growth, strengthen social bonds, and sustain our motivation and sense of exploration.

Assertiveness: A More Effective Way To Resolve Aggression

Today I would like to discuss a concept which is a significant cause of conflict in personal and work life: the quality of being socially dominant and its counterpart, passive aggressiveness. From my own observation, these two yin-yang approaches result in two camps of thoughts which are constantly at war with each other.

The benefits of being assertive

Assertiveness has been a well-known concept that contributes to good communication skills. Being assertive means to be able to speak up and project your point of view so as to protect your self-interest and create win-win situations through clear communication. It is a more healthy way of channeling aggression than said, bottling up inside just to explode later.

Potential benefits of being assertive:

  • Protect your personal benefits 
  • Communicate and find win-win situation in teamwork
  • Make individuals more stress-resistant and hence, improve productivity
  • Speak up and protect your boundary, thus improve mental healths
  • Be happier in general and reap associated health benefits
  • Feel more confident and competent, and therefore improve self-esteem

The definition of assertiveness: a skill or mindset?

The definition of assertiveness can range from a very positive meaning to domineering or openly aggressive. 16personalities.com, a very popular psychometric site, defines assertive individuals as “self-assured, even-tempered, and resistant to stress”.

So the keywords here are low on stress and aggression, or simply, low on neuroticism on the Big Five scale. For the discussion of this article, we will stick closely to the definition of Assertiveness as “the quality of being self-assured and confident without being aggressive“.

The implication is that loud and aggressive people can still be considered as not assertive if the underlying motivation is frequent excessive stress and aggression. Assertiveness in this sense closely resembles the laid-back type B in the popular Type A/ B personality model.

A loud and domineering person might not be considered assertive due to underlying aggression

How is assertiveness a mindset? I have observed two distinct patterns among people. On one hand, assertive individuals find it easier to set boundary. Their typical emotional reactions are either neutral or anger towards things or other people. It’s not that they cannot take blame or feel guilt, but they just do not dwell on it and instead quickly fix the issues either through correcting their own or other’s behaviors.

On the other hand are apparently meeker individuals who shy away from displaying outward anger or judgement and tend to internalize feelings of shame or guilt. That doesn’t mean they do not have aggression. These individuals may appear easy-going on the surface, but can harbor  victim mentality and passive-aggressive behaviors.

Yin and Yang: Is assertiveness all good and passive-aggressiveness bad?

Like most of other mindsets, being openly or passive-aggressive tends to be reinforced and biased by our egos. Passive-aggressive people tend to have a martyr complex, thinking that other people are immoral or ignorant, but keep such thoughts to themselves. They view assertive people as insensitive, domineering and even shallow.

Openly aggressive people on the other hand, view the majority as too inefficient, soft, overthinking or even lazy. While passive people often furnish their thought system with idealism, morality and sensitivity, assertive people reinforce their egos with the ideas of logic, efficiency, survival and bottom lines.

Such self-reinforcement results in a continuous battle between the overly assertive and the passive, like yin and yang, in our social interactions. The effect of a domineering personality is easy to see but passive aggression can be equally nasty. Especially when having a superior position, passive aggressive people can intentionally or unintentionally channel their aggression through guilt tripping, sarcasm or petty politics to cause pain to others.

Victim mentality is often a behavior associated with passive-aggressiveness

From an objective standpoint, both of these perspectives are valid. When something goes wrong, you can look outside and find faults in the system or others. You can also look into yourselves and find reasons for shame or guilt, or to do better next time. The key is balance so that you don’t over-blame yourself at the expense of leadership or don’t blame yourself enough to learn and improve.

How does assertiveness correlate with personality types?


Overall, introverted feeling types such as ISFP, INFP, ISFJ and INFJ tend to be the least assertive while extraverted thinkers such as  ESTJ and ENTJ are often assertive to the point of being brash. Genders also play a role where females would likely downplay their assertiveness which is traditionally considered a masculine quality.

How to practice assertiveness

Introvert and sensitive individuals often have the most to gain by practicing assertiveness
  • Avoid the martyr complex: people can’t read your mind even if they try to. We often have very skewed and over-simplistic views of other people’s minds so we shouldn’t expect others to understand us with the same depth and details as we understand ourselves. Communication is key!
  • Read books to improve soft skills and communication. There are many well-known books out there such as the 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, How to Win Friends and Influence People… Having the foundation on communications and people’s skills will allow you to transition from being closed up to assertive without coming off as brash or confrontational.
  • Read books on psychology to understand different personality types: learning about MBTI, Enneagram, Big Five can all help us to recognize the distinct personalities and their corresponding point of views, which are all valid.
  • Understand and tame your aggression: Ultimately, it’s a matter of channeling our aggression effectively or best of all, not having one in the first place. Meditation, talking to our support network, contemplating to see a wider perspective and challenging our own biases would help to alleviate our inner tension.

The Big Five’s Agreeableness: An In Depth Analysis

Followed by a series of five personality traits from the Big Five personality model, the next personality dimension that we will look into is agreeableness. The word “agree” indicates the likelihood to say yes, to compromise, or to agree to do things, either for oneself or others. Agreeableness measures the tendency to be kind, friendly, cooperative, and supportive. It shows how well one gets along with with others in a group-based environment. 

Highly agreeable people exhibit prosocial forms of behavior. They tend to be more sociable, considerate, tender-minded, and are concerned with the welfare of others. Low scorers tend to be more tough-minded and consider their interests and benefits above others. Sometimes, they are perceived as cynical, domineering, and antagonistic. 

If you want to know how agreeable you are, we recommend you taking the Big Five Personality Test here 

1. The importance of agreeableness: generate positive thoughts and improve mental health

Agreeableness helps to form relationships with  peace and empathy, trust and harmonization. It also helps to minimize the possibility of conflicts and arguments. On an individual scale, agreeableness enables one to harbor and nurture positive thoughts and actions towards others. 

Agreeableness, if placed at the right place and to the right people, attracts positivity and reduce negativity

2. The six facets of agreeableness

According to the International Personality Item Pool, each dimension of the Big Five Personality Traits comprises six facets, or also known as sub traits. The facets of the conscientiousness domain are:

Trust: to believe that someone or something is initially reliable, ethical, and truthful. A trusting individual tends to believe people are well-intentioned and fair. The opposite of being trusting is skeptical. Skeptical individuals tend not to trust others easily without considering other aspects. They tend to base on various other factors, such as their personal experience, facts, or evidence, to trust a person.

Morality: This facet shows the desire to be sincere and candid as opposed in dealing with others. Those who have high levels of morality tend to lean towards being sincere and kind-hearted with others. Those with low levels of morality believe a certain amount of deception or manipulation is needed in communications and relationships. It should be noted that this facet is not about being wrong or right, but rather the degree an individual feels comfortable and pleasant to interact straightforwardly with others.

Cooperation: the willingness to work together with others for a common goal, purpose, or benefit. These people do not like confrontations and tend to compromise. They are often not concerned much with their own needs or interests. Those who tend not to cooperate efficiently with others are more competitive and prioritize their personal needs and benefits. 

According to Dr. Todd Grande, looking at the overall personality trait, cooperation is one of the facets to be associated the most with agreeableness, in terms of the popular conception. For instance, a manager would view an agreeable employee as cooperative toward his or her co-workers. 

According to Dr. Todd Grande, looking at the overall personality trait, cooperation is one of the facets to be associated the most with agreeableness, in terms of the popular conception. For instance, a manager would view an agreeable employee as cooperative toward his or her co-workers. 

Cooperation is considered the most associated facet to the agreeableness trait, especially in working environments,  based on the popular conception

Altruism: the willingness or the desire to help others. Altruistic people find it fulfilling to help others in need. People with low levels of altruism might appear to be helpful towards others, yet the way they see these kind actions is different. Instead of feeling self-fulfilling and joyful when seeing others receive help, they feel inconvenient and look at it as an imposition

Modesty: how willing someone is to claim himself or herself better than others. Modest people do not like making this claim and would rarely consider themselves at a higher position than others. The opposite of modest is arrogant people who act as if they are superior to others.

Sympathy: the ability to understand and resonate with other people’s feelings, particularly that of sad events and sorrows. They are better at identifying, understanding, and connecting with human sufferings. Less sympathetic people lack the ability to recognize and harmonize with sorrowful experiences others are going through. 

Sympathy, in different situations, is considered as justice versus mercy. These two aspects appear as two extremes of a spectrum, where sympathetic individuals tend to lean towards mercy, and less sympathetic ones tend to lean towards the justice side

Sympathy                                                                                                                                                                                 More
Sympathetic people can understand and resonate well with other people’s emotions

3. Suggested careers for highly agreeable people

Highly agreeable people enjoy assisting others and feel more fulfilled when seeing others getting better from the help they receive. An ideal working environment for agreeable people would be a place that allows them to build connections and make positive contributions to the community.

Potential job ideas for agreeable people:

Teacher / lecturer

Nurse / caregiver

NGO / NPO leader

Religious Leader

Counselor

Community service staff

4. Suggested careers for those with low levels of agreeableness

Those who tend to behave bold, assertive, and tough-minded are not suitable for community-related jobs. They find it hard to place others’ needs and benefits above or emotionally connect to others. These people strive best in environments that focus on the outcomes, welcome counter opinions, and allow their competitiveness to glow.

Potential jobs ideas for low scorers in the agreeableness trait:

Scientist / researcher

Politicians

Programmer

Data analyst

Manager / director / association leader

Accountant

Engineer / mechanic

Author / writing content creator

5.Interesting facts about agreeableness

5.1 Agreeable people shouldn’t be perceived as “less intelligent”

Being too agreeable might lead to some behaviors that could be regarded as less intelligent. Agreeable people place their needs and interests lower than that of others. For this reason, agreeable individuals are perceived as less intelligent, especially in competitive working environments. 

However, how agreeableness is related to intelligence depends on how one chooses to define intelligence. Studies found that agreeableness has zero correlation with objective tests of general intelligence

5.2 People who consider themselves superior to others tend to appear disagreeable

Disagreeable personalities were found in those who perceived themselves at a higher position than others, regardless of their actual ability. This is a study result from Furnham & Buchanan on “Personality, gender, and self-perceived intelligence.” This has significant implications because that means agreeableness is not a fixed trait but can also change fluidly. A person can be more agreeable to a superior but less so with someone in an inferior position.

5.3 Agreeable individuals are more likely to experience Placebo Effect

A study published in 2013 found that there is a higher likelihood for agreeable individuals to undergo the placebo effect. For agreeable participants, they appeared to be more relieved by the placebo effect than other subjects having lower levels of agreeableness. They are less likely to object to the experimenters, more motivated to please them, and more hopeful for positive outcomes. 

5.4 Agreeable individuals are less bothered by grammatical mistakes

Subtle errors in emails might annoy some people, yet this is exceptional for agreeable people. The way personality affects an individual’s reaction to email mistakes was thoroughly discussed in this study. The study results suggested that agreeable people are less sensitive to grammatical errors in emails. It would be wrong to claim that agreeable people have worse grammar than others. They simply do not want to exaggerate the minor mistakes and willing to pass them through.

5.5 Social media is mostly used for positively connecting with others, rather than complaining, by agreeable people

How personality affects the usage of social media platforms has become the subject for a study in 2013. According to the results, agreeable people are more likely to use social media to build and maintain positive connections, rather than a platform for complaints and judgemental opinions. Another interesting study found that agreeable job applicants are less likely to be found badmouthing others on Facebook.

Social Media Sharing and Mobile Phone Networking Concept, Businesswoman is Using Smartphone for Communication Chat While Drinking a Cup of Coffee. Technology Connection for Entertainment Media Network , #Aff, #Concept, #Networking, #Smartphone, #Businesswoman, #Phone #Ad
The primary purpose of social media – building connections – is utilized the most by highly agreeable people

6. Conclusion: agreeableness needs to be utilized efficiently in the right place

Most people fall somewhere between agreeableness and disagreeableness. Depending on the circumstance, agreeableness can be perceived as a strength or weakness. On the overall perspective, agreeableness is a personal positivity that shows trust, cooperation, and support. This is a good thing and has become the keystone ingredient for organizational harmonization. However, in circumstances where assertiveness and counter opinions are more welcomed and focused, it is better to be tough-minded and competitive to protect one’s self-benefits.

References:

Six facets of the agreeableness personality trait, Dr. Todd Grande

Agreeableness has a zero correlation with objective tests of general intelligence, DeYoung, 2011

There is a higher likelihood for agreeable individuals to undergo the placebo effect

Agreeable people are less sensitive to minor writing errors in emails

Social media is used for positive connection purposes by agreeable people

How to Know If You Are An Introvert or Extrovert?

Let’s start with the definitions:

The simplified definition of introversion-extroversion scale is the source where an individual gain energy from. An introvert will gain energy reflecting and listening to his inner world of thoughts, feelings or ideas. Meanwhile, an extrovert is energized by interacting with surrounding people, ideas or projects and will get bored being left alone for too long.

I would like to clarify some common misconceptions. Many tests give you results in percentage such as 70% Introvert, 30% Extrovert. However, this does not mean you are a different type 30% of the time. Being 90% or 51% introverted still means you have an introverted outlook in life. Being more in the middle of the scale probably means you are more versatile in channeling your energy to meet extraverted tasks.

Being more introverted does not guarantee you are a loner, unfriendly or have very few friends either. It is simply a generalized tendency,. Introverts are very capable of being confident in public speaking or having more friends than an extrovert. Outward behaviors can be misleading. Being an introvert or extrovert is deeper than that, going to the core values and overall attitude towards the outside world. So read below for 3 guidelines which will help you better decide which side you are on. 

Extroverts seek social approval while introverts prioritize individuality

From a sociology point of view, since the time where mankind still lives in cave and in small closely-knitted communities, there are two distinct social strategies. One one hand, one may regard the community’s standards and needs as absolute and everything he thinks or does ultimately allows him to be better recognized by the tribe. The introvert’s ultimate basis is his own needs and himself. It is not about being selfish, but prioritizing individual perspectives and standards over the norms.

For example, an introverted feeling-dominant person will prioritize his moral standards and his subjective experience over the tribe’s. Such a type is the inspiration for the typical protagonist in many classic romance stories where the character is willing to fight and suffer for a personal passion despite resistance from the community or family. An extraverted feeling person, as you can guess, would more likely to follow what the social norms dictate.

introvert feeling in Hunchback_of_Notre_Dame
The Hunchback of Notre Dame is a good illustration of introverted feeling

In the case of thinking, an extraverted thinkers will have the habit of thinking how to obtain knowledge from well-validated external sources and to apply a principle or rule to as many people as possible. An introverted thinker, on the other hand, is often more comfortable relying on his original understanding of how things work and how he can “game the system” to obtain what he wants.

Extroverts prefer quantity while introverts want quality

Carl Jung himself mentioned in his book that the extroversion scale points beyond humans to include all living organisms. In the same population of a specific species, on one end of the spectrum are individuals who are more aggressive and less discriminate in acquiring food and mates. On the other end, there are those that prefer to conserve energy, striking with fewer but more efficient attempts.

Of course, like many other biological drives, introversion-extroversion has grown to be more complex in humans. But the general principle stays the same: extroverts prefer to expand their energy while introvert conserves. Both are valid survival strategies. It explains many different outward behaviors between the two types, like how introverts tend to prefer fewer but closer friends or how extroverts seem more outgoing and socially assertive in pursuing their goals. 

Extroverts are often generalists while introverts are specialists

Introverts often can think and work for much longer on a single topic or project, obtaining more unique and in-depth insights than their extroverted counterparts. Extroverts, like Thomas Edison, are of course capable of invention and creating ideas. However, what introverts are naturally good at is depth in subject matters. They are certainly over-represented in professions such as research, writing, drawing, engineering etc.

Meanwhile, extroverts often use ideas to achieve real world objectives. They are over-represented as managers, politicians, marketers… They usually prefer well-validated or popular knowledge and have relatively less patience to dwell on a topic for too long.

Conclusion

If you are a so-called ambivert, trying to pinpoint the side of this spectrum is not an easy task and personality tests online often do not help due to a lack of accuracy. I believe the best way to do is to contemplate the 3 principles above and search within yourself about what you really want. 

Most of us want success or popularity eventually, but does that success needs to come from your original understanding and ingenuity? Do you often distrust the mass and wish everyone can be more unique and think more for themselves? If those questions constantly itch you, you are more likely to be introverted than extroverted. 

Yardstick Introvert Extrovert
Social approval Have a general dislike and often question popular ideas , standards or tastes Seek to achieve socially-approved concepts and objectives without “overthinking”
Quantity versus quality Prefer quality, being picky (job, relationship…) Want to experience it all, easy-going and easy to blend in
Generalist versus specialist Are often specialist Are often generalist