The 4 Most Common Subtypes of INFJs (Based on Enneagram)

INFJs are often stereotyped as shy, introverted idealists who are deeply philosophical and detached from the outside world. This simplistic label fails to capture the diversity that exists within this type, and can sometimes even lead INFJs who are new to the MBTI world to question whether they truly belong to this personality type. The truth is, INFJs come in all shades and forms, with varying levels of extraversion, thinking styles, interests, and behaviors. This article explores various subtypes of INFJs that you may identify with. You may find that you relate strongly to one particular subtype, or perhaps resemble a mix of all three. Regardless of which subtype you identify with, remember that all INFJs share the same core values and functions, even if they are expressed differently. 

Before exploring the different subtypes that may exist within the INFJ personality type, let’s take a quick overview of their cognitive functions, which will serve as a reference throughout the article. Cognitive functions are the mental processes used by individuals to gather information and make decisions. Each MBTI personality type has a stack of 4 cognitive functions. The higher a cognitive function is in our stack, the more it guides our thoughts and behavior, and the lower we go down the stack, the less conscious control we have over the functions. The cognitive functions of INFJs are:

DominantIntroverted Intuition (Ni) – relies on abstract connections, speculates about potential and implications. 
AuxiliaryExtraverted Feeling (Fe) – relies on sensitivity to the emotional states of others  and feelings of harmony with the world. 
TertiaryIntroverted Thinking (Ti) – uses personal framework of technical knowledge and skill to prevent/avoid/solve problems
InferiorExtraverted Sensing (Se) – maintains direct relationship to the world via physical sensations. 

These cognitive functions can manifest themselves in different combinations to form the following main subtypes of INFJs. We have also explained the subtypes in reference to Enneagram to provide a more comprehensive understanding. The Enneagram is a personality typing system that identifies nine core motivations and fears, providing insights into individuals’ deep-seated drives and behaviors. It goes beyond cognitive functions and explores the underlying motivations behind our thoughts and actions.

Combining Enneagram with MBTI, we gain a deeper understanding of how INFJs’ core motivations and fears interact with their cognitive functions, shedding light on the nuances and variations within this personality type.

  1. The Principled Idealist

The Principled Idealists are INFJs who often relate to the Type 1 enneagram especially with a Type 9 wing. People with 1w9 enneatype are nicknamed as the idealists, and have principles, dedication, and loyalty of Type 1 (the perfectionists), as well as the desire for harmony from wing 9 (the peacemakers). Such INFJs mostly appear to others as ambiverts, and have a good balance of intuition (Ni), empathy (Fe), and logical thinking (Ti). They are passionate visionaries who aim to organize their ideals and insights into practical frameworks that make sense to them and can benefit others. However, they can be very perfectionistic and become too rigid or critical in pursuing their lofty standards and vision of creating a better world. 

INFJs of this type are wise, noble, conscientious, and care deeply about maintaining justice and harmony in their social environment. They feel a strong sense of fairness and responsibility towards others and strive to improve their lives through diplomacy, compassion and reasoned action. Their tendency to value the shared experiences of the group and their vision of how society “ought to be” often leads them to become social activists, advocates or be elected as leaders in their communities, even if they don’t actively seek positions of authority. 

  1. The Social Chameleon / Empathetic Helper

When people call INFJs social chameleons, they refer to this subtype specifically. While they still primarily rely on their Ni for processing information internally, they are more comfortable outwardly expressing their Fe, which makes them appear more social, outgoing, or even extraverted. They are closely associated with enneagram Type 2 – the caregiver, especially with Type 3 wing (type 2w3 – nicknamed as the host/hostess), as both INFJs and Type 2w3 have the superpower of gauging the emotional atmosphere of the group and adjusting their behavior accordingly to meet the needs of others.

At their best, these INFJs are sage counselors, providing empathy, wisdom and advice to those in need. As confidants, they offer unconditional positive regard and help guide people through difficulties. These INFJs often make excellent therapists, social workers, helplines counselors or spiritual advisors. 

However, this tendency can also turn unhealthy if they indulge too much in their Fe and lose touch with their vision (Ni). The unhealthy ones can be so focused on others’ emotions that they might not even recognize what their own true feelings are! They often wear different masks for different situations and say things they think others want to hear. Their behavior is often motivated by the desire to fit in, be liked or appreciated by others. This subtype is also most likely to exhaust themselves and neglect their own needs while trying to make sure everyone around them is happy, pleased, and satisfied.

  1. The Contemplative Creator

The third type of INFJs can be referred to as the contemplative creators. These individuals are highly introspective and tend to immerse themselves in creative expression and intellectual pursuits. Although Type 4 enneagram – the individualist – is mostly associated with dominant Introverted Feelers (those who put their own values and beliefs first and foremost), this subtype of INFJs also correlates strongly to it. However, they mostly have a Type 5 wing (the investigator), which adds the element of intellectual curiosity to their personality and the resulting Type 4w5 is nicknamed “the Bohemian”. 

Type 4 enneatypes are concerned with being unique, and are quite creative, emotional, and introspective. This category of INFJs also possess this unconscious desire to convince themselves and others that they’re different and distinctive in terms of their emotional, creative, and intellectual styles. They claim the flashes of insight and gut-feelings (from their Ni) as their unique gifts, and embrace creativity that sees beyond surface realities, perceiving hidden metaphors and symbolic meanings. They tend to live in their heads more than the other two subtypes, spending much of their time thinking, analyzing, and fantasizing (using their wing 5, or tertiary Introverted Thinking function-Ti). Although private, they’re still very attuned to people’s behaviors and motivations, picking up on subtle cues (using their Fe), even if less outwardly expressing. With their intuition, creativity, and intellectual curiosity, these INFJs produce original work that evokes emotions and stimulates the mind.

  1. The Insightful Guardian/ The Skeptical Strategist

This particular group of INFJs can be identified as insightful sentinel, and are extremely thoughtful but troubled souls. Their insightful minds are plagued by doubts and their caring nature is hampered by distrust in others. They are often associated with the enneagram 6 with wing 5 (6w5), known as “the guardians”. Enneagram type 6 individuals, known as Loyalists, crave security, stability and order. They are hardworking, responsible and value integrity but their skepticism and anxiety can lead to worst-case scenario thinking. With a 5 wing, such INFJs gain an intellectual bent and thirst for knowledge to attain certainty in an uncertain world. 

This subtype of INFJs is highly thoughtful, cautious, and analytical. They are very risk-averse which often leads them to miss out on exciting opportunities and adventures. Their dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) helps them visualize the future and foresee potential problems or risks that they may encounter, and prepare accordingly. However, it also feeds their fear and anxiety by showing them all the way things could go wrong. Hence, they naturally gravitate towards others in an attempt to build their security network of friends and family. 

Their auxiliary Extraverted Feeling (Fe) helps these INFJs to look to others for support and validation due to their fear of criticism and rejection. They want to connect with groups but their natural cautiousness and distrust in others makes it hard to build new friendships. They take time to gather information about new people (using their wing 5 or tertiary Introverted Thinking-Ti) to determine if they seem “safe” before opening up. Such INFJs constantly seek knowledge and certainty, making them excellent troubleshooters and information sponges. While this makes them extremely self-aware and humble, it can also feed into their anxieties and paranoia. Moreover, due to their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se), harsh sensory input easily stresses them out as it forces them into the present moment, which they tend to avoid in favor of envisioning the future or analyzing the past.  


The INFJ subtypes described here merely scratch the surface of the rich diversity found within this personality type. You may find that you relate to some aspects of multiple subtypes, after all, they are all INFJs. This just goes to show that INFJs, like all people, are multifaceted beings. 

Ultimately, personality types are just an attempt to make it easier for us to understand ourselves and connect with others who may share similar traits. There are pros and cons for being in each of the INFJ subtypes listed above and one type can always learn from the opposite types to become a more balanced and mature individual. For a more detailed description of INFJs, you can visit INFJ Type Description.

Are you an INFJ or INFP? Decoding Your True Personality Type

Do you live with one foot in the physical world and one in the realm of imagination? Are you an empathetic and introspective person but struggle with explaining to others the rich inner landscape of ideas and emotions within you? If so, you may find yourself caught in the INFJ/INFP tug-of-war – two of the most idealistic personality types under the Myer Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) system.

As sensitive souls and visionaries, INFJs and INFPs share some similarities in both letters and outward behaviors, and may appear nearly interchangeable on the surface. However, as we delve deeper into the analysis of their cognitive functions, we find that they have significant yet subtle differences, from how they process information and make decisions to how they handle their own and others’ emotions. Gaining insight into these differences can be a profoundly rewarding experience and help you embrace the gifts of your unique personality.

What are Cognitive Functions?

When it comes to differentiating between such similar personality types, understanding their cognitive functions is the key as they provide a more nuanced and precise understanding of the inner minds of each type.Cognitive functions are the mental processes used by individuals to gather information and make decisions. There are 4 cognitive processes: Feeling, Thinking, Intuition and Sensing, and they can be either introverted (directed inwards) or extraverted (directed outwards), resulting in 8 cognitive functions. 

In the MBTI framework, each type is characterized predominantly by the relative dominance of 4 functions: a dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior function. Much like our dominant hand versus non-dominant hand, we have a greater level of confidence and comfort using our dominant function compared to the ones lower in our functional stack. The further we move down the stack towards our auxiliary, tertiary and then inferior function, the less control and awareness we have over its influence on us. To understand better how the cognitive function stack is determined for a particular type, you can read the detailed guide here.

Understanding the cognitive functions of INFJs and INFPs is like uncovering the hidden gears that drive their unique personalities. Each type has a unique stack of cognitive functions, which are explained below.

DominantIntroverted Intuition (Ni) – relies on abstract connections, speculates about potential and potential implications. Introverted Feeling (Fi) – relies on a deep understanding of personal values and beliefs, and a desire to live in congruence with them.
AuxiliaryExtraverted Feeling (Fe) – relies on sensitivity to the emotional states of others  and feelings of harmony with the world. Extraverted Intuition (Ne) – relies on abstract possibilities, generates novel ideas about what things can be.
TertiaryIntroverted Thinking (Ti) – uses personal framework of technical knowledge and skill to prevent/avoid/solve problemsIntroverted Sensing (Si) – relies on sensory details, processes concrete details via comparing/contrasting with past experiences.
InferiorExtraverted Sensing (Se) – maintains direct relationship to the world via physical sensations. Extraverted Thinking (Te) – relies on knowledge of external systems, uses empirical data to make effective decisions

For a more detailed explanation and examples for each cognitive function, click here.

Distinguishing Between INFJ and INFP

Now that we have a better understanding of the cognitive functions that INFJs and INFPs use, we can examine how these functions shape their personalities and lead to the following differences in their behavior and preferences. 

  1. Analytical vs Artistic Thinking

One of the primary differences between INFJ and INFP is how they approach the world and process information. INFJs take a more analytical approach, using their dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) to understand the purpose and meaning of things, narrowing down possibilities to the most suitable ones. They look outside in, searching for the underlying patterns and themes and observing how different parts work together to form a cohesive whole. 

On the other hand, INFPs lean more towards artistic and creative thinking. Guided by their values and emotions (due to their Fi), they look inside out, focusing on how they feel about things rather than their intended purpose or meaning. Furthermore, their Ne, which is exploratory in nature, also helps them generate multiple possibilities and ideas, allowing them to approach problems from a creative and imaginative standpoint. 

  1. Decisive vs Exploratory Decision Making

Another difference between INFJ and INFP is their approach to decision-making. INFJs tend to be decisive and efficient in reaching a decision. They meticulously analyze, and pare down all the available options to reach their desired goals (using their Ni, often supported by their Ti) without any perceived waste of time or resources. This makes them strategic, thoughtful, and observant in their decision-making approach.

On the other hand, INFPs have an authentic love and appreciation for exploring new experiences, and aren’t necessarily fixated on finding the one “perfect” solution. They tend to generate a plethora of ideas using their Ne, often throwing every possible option at the wall to see what sticks. Their satisfaction comes from the process of uncovering possibilities that extend beyond the present reality, rather than the decision itself. This approach to decision-making is marked by an open-minded and exploratory mindset that values creativity and imagination.

  1. Absorbing vs Mirroring Emotions

INFJs are highly attuned to the emotions of others due to their Fe, which makes them expert social chameleons. They have a remarkable ability to read the room quickly thanks to the input from their Extraverted Sensing (Se), discerning subtle changes in others’ tone, body language, and behavior, and adapt their own behavior to promote social harmony. However, this ability to absorb others’ emotions can be overwhelming and often leaves INFJs struggling to differentiate their own feelings from those of others.

On the other hand, INFPs’ Introverted Feeling (Fi) is more focused on their own values, morals, and emotions. They are not likely to alter their behavior to please others, as they prioritize their own feelings and authenticity. INFPs can still very well understand what others are going through by putting themselves in their shoes, but they only mirror the emotions of others rather than absorbing them. This makes it easier for them to maintain a healthy emotional distance and not get overwhelmed by the emotions of others. This emotional clarity also allows them to remain true to themselves and their values, often leading them to pursue creative outlets where they can express themselves freely.

  1. Community-Oriented vs Individualistic Relationship Orientation

INFJs and INFPs approach their relationships with others in very distinct ways. INFJs, due to their Fe, are community-oriented people, guided by a vision of how relationships and society ‘ought to be’. They tend to take on a more active and assertive role in relationships, seeking to build connections and harmony, and facilitate communication. This, combined with their ability to value shared experiences of the group, often also leads them to be chosen for positions of authority and leadership roles by others, even if they do not actively seek them.  

While INFJs have a stronger desire to build community, INFPs prefer more intimate connections. INFPs lead with their hearts, following their personal values and beliefs (due to their Fi). INFPs approach relationships with an idealistic and personalized focus. They prefer intimate one-on-one connections, built on profound emotional understanding and shared values. However, they may struggle with setting clear boundaries and asserting themselves, which can lead to difficulties in expressing their needs and built-up resentment.

  1. Developing a “Sensor’s Eye” vs a “Thinker’s Mind”

Personal growth and development are important to both INFJs and INFPs, but their paths to achieving it can be quite different. Due to their inferior functions, they may struggle in certain areas and experience unique challenges. Inferior functions represent an aspirational but weak or “tip toeing” part of one’s personality. People rarely notice their inferior functions under normal conditions. However, when stressed or fatigued, these weaker functions emerge in unintended and disruptive ways. People are said to “be in the grip” of the inferior functions in this situation. Healthy INFJs and INFPs see their inferior functions not as weaknesses but opportunities to grow. Through conscious dedication, what was once a liability can be transformed into a source of strength and depth. 

INFJs pursue growth through cultivating their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) function. In the grip, the dark side of Se takes hold, inducing escapism through overindulgence in sensory pleasures. INFJs may binge watch TV, overeat, or become shortsighted in pleasure-seeking, which they regret later when the stress subsides. To strengthen Se, INFJs must gain awareness of this unconscious tendency and learn control. Moreover, INFJs prioritize their personal insights and “gut feelings” over concrete details. Healthy INFJs aspire to strengthen Se by cultivating awareness of the external world, and being more present and responsive to external sensory stimuli. What seemed abstract must become visceral. Through practice and patience, INFJs can develop a “sensor’s eye” able to see beyond concepts to practical realities. 

In contrast, INFPs nurture their Extraverted Thinking (Te) to develop mastery. When in the grip of Te, INFPs tend to get hyper-critical of themselves and others, frantically solving problems or nitpicking processes. They must tame their urge to organize or “fix” everything when stressed through hypercriticism or forced efficiency. Healthy INFPs aspire to strengthen Te through developing a pragmatic “thinker’s mind.” Te demands analyzing information objectively, stepping away from personal values to evaluate options rationally and decisively. For INFPs, it means moving away from imagination to implementation by formulating feasible strategies and evaluating resources effectively.


Now that you know the key differences between INFJs and INFPs, where do you stand? Take some time to reflect on which tendencies feel most natural and authentic to you. Remember, self-discovery is a lifelong journey and determining your personality type is just the beginning. It can be a powerful tool to help you embrace your strengths and chart your own path in life. For INFPs, recognizing your idealism and depth of caring can help you set boundaries when needed and express your authentic feelings. Similarly, if you are an INFJ, understanding your empathy and desire for harmony can guide you towards finding balance and connecting with your own needs.

If you still feel conflicted, take the next step and read the detailed descriptions of both the INFJ and INFP personality types. It will provide you with a framework to explore the depths of who you are – and who you want to become. Use this knowledge as a springboard to continue your growth, follow your purpose, and build authentic relationships where your gifts are truly appreciated.

Caregiver (ESFJ) – Type Description

ESFJ is one of the 16 Myers & Briggs personality types, characterized by extraversion, sensing, feeling, and judging. ESFJs, also known as the “caregivers”, have a warm, caring, and empathetic nature. They are friendly and outgoing, and they take pleasure in ensuring that everyone is having a good time. They are highly attuned to the needs of others and are great at picking up on people’s emotions and moods. Despite their sociable nature, they are not just surface-level acquaintances. ESFJs form meaningful, long-lasting relationships and are dependable when others require assistance or someone to confide in. 

ESFJs are considerate and responsible towards others and understand that their actions can have an impact on those around them. They possess a clear sense of morality and may find it perplexing when others behave in ways that conflict with their values. ESFJs are also well-organized and are great at following rules and procedures. They are loyal not just to their friends and family, but also to their employers and organizations. They are the ultimate team players and will do whatever it takes to ensure the success of their group or organization.

Cognitive Functions of ESFJs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ESFJ personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ESFJs, 

Dominant Fe: Individuals who have dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) function use it to gauge the emotional atmosphere of a group and evaluate the impact of their own behavior on others. They gather information about others’ feelings and thoughts based on subtle cues such as tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions. Based on this information, they adjust their own behavior and actions accordingly in order to create a more positive and harmonious environment. Dominant Fe helps ESFJs to be sensitive to others’ needs, to be tactful in their communication and to be able to empathize with others.

Auxiliary Si: Individuals who use the Introverted Sensing (Si) function have an organized internal world and a highly accurate memory of past experiences and sensations. ESFJs use their auxiliary Si to create categories in their minds to sort and keep track of important information, gathered by their dominant Fe, related to people and their relationships with them. By remembering their past positive experiences and following the same behaviors to recreate those experiences, they are able to create a sense of stability and predictability in their lives.

Due to ESFJs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their Intuition and Thinking functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (intuition), strategic planning and rational decision making (thinking). 


Like all personality types, ESFJs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which include the following.

  • Sociable: ESFJs are naturally sociable and enjoy being around people. They are skilled at reading others’ emotions due to their Fe, and can adapt their communication style to suit different personalities and situations. They are warm, approachable, and skilled at making others feel at ease.
  • Dutiful and responsible: ESFJs are known for being hardworking and reliable, as they have a strong sense of duty and responsibility. They take their obligations seriously and strive to fulfill them to the best of their ability. 
  • Practical and methodical: ESFJs are highly practical and methodical individuals who leave nothing to chance. They carefully plan and organize everything to effectively manage day-to-day tasks, and ensure that everything is done efficiently.
  • Loyal and trustworthy: ESFJs are known for their commitment to their personal and work relationships. They value loyalty and faithfulness in others and strive to demonstrate these qualities themselves. They are seen as dependable and trustworthy friends, partners, and employees.
  • Empathetic and sensitive: ESFJs have a strong sense of empathy and are skilled at connecting with others on an emotional level. They are sensitive, warm, and caring individuals, and make excellent team players who foster a positive and supportive work environment.


ESFJs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Sensitivity to critique: ESFJs struggle to separate their personal worth from their work and can be sensitive to criticism. They strongly believe in their established ways of doing things due to their Si, and can see critiques as an attack on their personal beliefs and values. 
  • Validation-seeking behavior: ESFJs have a tendency to tie their self-worth to the praise and acknowledgment they receive from others. They may seek validation by fishing for compliments and may feel demotivated when they don’t receive the recognition they believe they deserve.
  • Judgmental: ESFJs create mental categories of what is right and what is wrong based on their past experiences (due to their Si) and may be judgmental of those who deviate from these norms. They may try to impose their ideas of morality on others and can be intolerant of different perspectives or lifestyles.
  • Overly nurturing: ESFJs may have a tendency to be too caring and nurturing, to the point where they neglect their own needs. They may shower others with attention and help, even when it’s not needed, which can lead to burnout and exhaustion.
  • Resistance to improvisation: ESFJs may be hesitant to step out of their comfort zone and may be resistant to change. They may prefer to stick to familiar routines and ways of doing things due to their Si, which can limit their adaptability and creativity in problem-solving.

Career choice

ESFJs excel in careers that involve working with people and require a high level of responsibility, dependability, and attention to detail. Some suitable career paths for ESFJs include:

  • Healthcare: ESFJs are compassionate, empathetic, and have a natural inclination towards helping others, which makes them well-suited for careers in healthcare, such as nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, or social work.
  • Education: ESFJ teachers are adept at creating a supportive and encouraging classroom environment that helps students feel comfortable and confident. They take pride in their students’ success and are motivated by the sense of fulfillment that comes from helping them reach their full potential.
  • Customer Service: ESFJs have excellent people skills and enjoy interacting with others, which makes them ideal for customer service positions, such as customer service representatives, hospitality and tourism, and sales.
  • Administrative roles: ESFJs are dependable, organized, and detail-oriented, making them well-suited for administrative roles such as executive assistants, project coordinators, or office managers.
  • Law Enforcement: ESFJs’ sense of duty, attention to detail, and commitment to justice make them well-suited for careers in law enforcement, such as police officers or correctional officers.
  • Human resources: ESFJs make great HR managers due to their natural talent for reading people, managing conflict, and finding practical solutions to problems. They are committed to upholding company values and have a strong sense of fairness and justice, making them great at this role.

ESFJs may find careers that involve working independently or require a high degree of analytical or abstract thinking challenging. Careers such as research, entrepreneurship, or roles in technology may not be as suitable for ESFJs as they typically prefer to work in structured and organized environments.


ESFJs are known to be extremely devoted and loyal partners, always looking for someone who shares their values and beliefs. They often prefer traditional gender roles in relationships, and once they feel they have found the right person, they quickly start envisioning a future together, often planning for the long term. However, ESFJs can be influenced by social status and others’ approval, which can sometimes affect their choice of a partner.

ESFJs excel at managing practical aspects of life, such as finances and day-to-day tasks. Stability and predictability are important to them, and they need to feel that their partner is fully invested and supportive of their goals. They thrive in relationships where they feel valued and appreciated, but can become needy if they do not receive this validation. They are also uncomfortable with conflict and may compromise on their own beliefs and feelings to keep the peace in their relationship, which ultimately leads to unhappiness. 

ESFJs are compassionate but firm parents who are deeply invested in their child’s lives and decisions. They are willing to go above and beyond to provide their children with all the necessities and resources they need to succeed. Consistent in their parenting style, they provide a stable environment for their children to thrive in. While they take immense pride in their child’s successes, they may feel a sense of personal failure when their child doesn’t meet their expectations. However, they are deeply attuned to their children’s feelings and needs, always available to offer emotional guidance and practical support. 

In conclusion, ESFJs are nurturing and empathetic individuals who prioritize practicality and stability in their personal and professional lives. They are natural caregivers, who are devoted to their families, friends, and communities, and take great pride in providing for their loved ones. While they can be sensitive to criticism and conflict, they are skilled at managing practical aspects of life, and excel in careers that involve working with people. ESFJs serve as an inspiration for their unwavering commitment to the people and causes they care about, and their desire to create a world that is safe, secure, and harmonious for all. 

Entrepreneur (ESTP) – Type Description

ESTP is one of the 16 Myers & Briggs personality types, characterized by extraversion, sensing, thinking, and perceiving. ESTPs, also known as “entrepreneurs” or “doers”, are known for their spontaneous, assertive, and daring nature. They are action-oriented individuals who thrive in high-stress situations and are always looking for the next adventure. ESTPs enjoy being the center of attention and possess a natural charisma that makes them great communicators and motivators. They have a witty sense of humor, but can be a little blunt at times which may rub others the wrong way. 

ESTPs are highly skilled at thinking on their feet and improvising in difficult situations.  They are quick to observe any changes or shifts in their surroundings, and pick up on subtle cues in people’s tone, behavior, or body language. They prefer to deal with situations head-on, and they may not always sugarcoat their words or actions. They value efficiency and results and are not afraid to break the rules or challenge authority if they feel it will lead to a positive outcome. However, their impulsive nature can also lead them to make hasty decisions or act without thinking, which can sometimes lead to negative consequences. 

Cognitive Functions of ESTPs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ESTP personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ESTPs, 

Dominant Se: Extraverted Sensing (Se) directs an individual’s focus on the concrete details in the external environment, prioritizing  immediate physical experiences. It is about being present in the moment, taking in information from the environment through the five senses, and responding to it in a spontaneous and adaptable way.  Dominant Se individuals often act on their impulses as soon as they arise, figuring things out as they go instead of planning too far ahead.

Auxiliary Ti: Introverted Thinking (Ti) allows individuals to analyze their thoughts in a logical and systematic way, and identify any inconsistencies in their own reasoning. Ti as an auxiliary function helps ESTPs critically evaluate the information they gather through their five senses (Se). It controls their impulsive tendencies by determining the best course of action in the larger scheme of things, allowing for a balance between spontaneity and practicality. 

Due to ESTPs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their Intuition and Feeling functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (Intuition), understanding and expressing emotions, and empathizing with others (Feeling). 


Like all personality types, ESTPs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which include the following.

  • Decisive and Action-Oriented: ESTPs have a can-do attitude and are known for being decisive and action-oriented. They respond well to their physical environment and know how to maneuver the world around them.
  • Bold and Competitive: ESTPs are efficient, clever, bold, and are willing to take risks to achieve their objectives. Their mental toughness and sense of competition make them driven and relentless in pursuing their goals.
  • Observant and perceptive: ESTPs have a keen sense of observation and can easily pick up on subtle details using their dominant Se. They are able to read people well and understand their motivations, which makes them effective communicators and negotiators.
  • Sociable: ESTPs are outgoing and enjoy being around people. They have a natural charisma that makes them popular and well-liked. They are comfortable in social situations and are easily able to make connections with others. 
  • Practical and innovative: ESTPs have a natural talent for finding practical solutions to problems. They are innovative and resourceful, using their bold and quick thinking to come up with unique solutions.


ESTPs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Uncomfortable with feelings: ESTPs tend to prioritize objective data over subjective experiences, and may feel awkward in emotionally charged situations. They may struggle to express their own feelings or connect with others on an emotional level. When attempting to offer comfort or support, they may struggle to find the right words or come across as cold or uncaring.
  • Blunt and insensitive communication: ESTPs have a tendency to be brutally honest and come across as insensitive or callous when expressing their opinions. They may also pry into others’ personal lives without realizing they are crossing boundaries, which can cause tension with others, particularly in the workplace.
  • Impatience: ESTPs are highly driven individuals who prefer to work at a fast pace. They may become impatient with those who do not think as quickly or struggle to keep up with their energetic approach. Their need for speed can make it challenging to work effectively in teams or with colleagues who have a different working style. 
  • Resistance to rules and authority: ESTPs find it tedious to follow rules and protocols, preferring to find their own way to achieve results. This can lead them to break rules and disregard authority, which can have serious consequences in professional and personal settings.
  • Short-sightedness: ESTPs are hands-on and prefer to focus on the present moment rather than thinking about long-term consequences of their actions. This impulsiveness can lead to risky behaviors and decisions, potentially harming not only themselves but also their organization or team.

Career choice

ESTPs, with their energetic and action-oriented nature, tend to excel in careers that allow them to apply their practical skills and think on their feet. Here are some suitable career options for ESTPs:

  • Entrepreneurs: ESTPs make great entrepreneurs due to their ability to spot opportunities and take calculated risks. Their Se gathers information from their surroundings and identifies emerging trends, while Ti evaluates the viability of these ideas and develops effective strategies. 
  • Marketing and sales representatives: ESTPs are excellent communicators and have a talent for persuasion. Se allows them to pick up on subtle cues and tailor their sales pitch to each customer, while Ti helps them analyze the effectiveness of different strategies. They also enjoy the challenge of exceeding sales targets, making them natural performers in this role. 
  • Detectives and investigators: ESTPs have a natural curiosity and a keen eye for detail due to their dominant Se. As detectives or investigators, they can use their analytical skills to solve complex cases and bring criminals to justice. 
  • Paramedics/EMTs: ESTPs thrive in high-pressure environments and can think quickly on their feet. As paramedics or EMTs, they can process information rapidly and improvise quickly, making them excellent in emergency situations to provide medical care and save lives. 
  • Sports coaches: ESTPs have a competitive nature and enjoy physical challenges. As sports coaches, they can use their enthusiasm and tactical skills to train athletes and guide them towards success.

ESTPs may struggle in careers such as accounting, law, data analysis, or research that require extensive planning and structured work environments. They may also find careers in counseling or social work challenging, as these fields require a high level of empathy and sensitivity.


ESTPs are fun-loving and flirtatious in relationships. They enjoy keeping things exciting and trying new things with their partners. They may become bored or frustrated with a partner who can’t keep up with their energetic lifestyle, and they are quick to recognize incompatibilities and move on if necessary. Although they may struggle to understand their partner’s unspoken feelings and emotions, they are perceptive of changes in mood or behavior and try to respond accordingly.

In conflicts, ESTPs tend to focus on practical solutions rather than delving into the emotional aspects of the problem, which may lead them to appear cold or unemotional to their partner. However, they are also willing to go the extra mile to make their partner’s life easier without much drawing attention to it.

ESTPs can be great parents due to their flexibility, spontaneity, and high energy levels. They enjoy engaging in different activities and adventures with their children and encourage them to learn through hands-on experiences. They want their children to succeed and encourage them not to be afraid of trying out new things. However, they may struggle with enforcing strict rules and structure, as well as emotionally bonding with their children. 

In conclusion, ESTPs are lively, spontaneous, and practical individuals who enjoy taking risks and seeking new experiences. They are quick thinkers, action-oriented, and natural problem-solvers who are fearless in the face of challenges. While their focus on logic and practicality can sometimes lead to them overlooking emotional needs, they are highly perceptive and responsive to their environment and the people around them. With their energetic and adventurous spirit, ESTPs inspire others to live in the moment, embrace change, and take risks to achieve their goals. 

Entertainer (ESFP) – Type Description

ESFP is one of the 16 Myers & Briggs personality types, characterized by extraversion, sensing, feeling, and perceiving. ESFPs, also known as “entertainers”, have very outgoing and energetic personalities. They are known for their love of excitement and their desire to share that excitement with those around them. They are natural performers who love being in the spotlight and can make any situation feel like a party. However, despite their outgoing nature, ESFPs are very observant and sensitive to the feelings of others and are often the first to offer emotional support and advice to those in need. Having a natural ability to read the emotions of others, they can quickly adapt their communication style to connect with different people.

ESFPs are not fans of structure or routine, preferring to “go with the flow” and improvise their way through any situation. They are hands-on learners and prefer to learn through experience rather than studying from a book. ESFPs often struggle with finding the balance between immediate pleasures and long-term responsibilities. They can sometimes get caught up in the excitement of the moment and neglect the duties that make those experiences possible. Despite their aversion to complex analysis and repetitive tasks, ESFPs are adaptable and quick thinkers who excel at problem-solving in the moment.

Cognitive Functions of ESFPs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ESFP personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ESFPs, 

Dominant Se: Extraverted Sensing (Se) directs an individual’s focus on the sensory information and concrete details in the external environment, prioritizing  immediate physical experiences. Dominant Se individuals prefer to live in the moment, acting on their impulses as soon as they arise, and can become restless if tied to a schedule or forced to plan too far ahead. Se also allows ESFPs to make creative and tangible art that engages their five senses, which gives them energy and gratification.

Auxiliary Fi:  Introverted Feeling (Fi) is an internal decision-making process that is rooted in personal values and emotions. ESFPs use their auxiliary Fi to make decisions based on their own moral code and beliefs, rather than external rules or societal norms. They may struggle with expressing their emotions and tend to be selective about who they share their feelings with. 

Auxiliary Fi in ESFPs helps to control their impulsive actions by preventing them from straying too far from their values and guiding them towards decisions that align with their morals. This allows them to live spontaneously in the present moment while still maintaining a strong sense of personal identity and purpose.

Due to ESFPs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their Intuition and Thinking functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (intuition), strategic planning and logical decision making (thinking). 


Like all personality types, ESFPs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which include the following.

  • Observant: ESFPs excel in noticing the details of their environment using their five senses (Se). This also helps them quickly identify the needs of the people around them and respond accordingly. 
  • Strong Aesthetic sense: ESFPs have a natural appreciation for beauty and aesthetics. Their Se allows them to fully immerse themselves in their surroundings and appreciate the visual world around them. They have a keen eye for design, which they use to create beautiful and harmonious spaces.
  • Action-oriented: ESFPs are bold and practical individuals who prefer to experience life rather than speculate about it. They are neither interested in abstract theories and hypothetical scenarios, nor are they afraid to take risks or practical steps to achieve their goals.
  • People skills: ESFPs have a charming and engaging personality that allows them to connect with others easily. They have a natural talent for entertaining people and making them feel comfortable. They’re able to use humor to lighten the mood in tense situations and to create a fun environment at home as well as their workplace. 
  • Adaptability: ESFPs’ dominant Se allows them to adapt easily to new situations by helping them take in information about their environment and make quick, practical decisions based on what they observe. Their Fi helps them stay true to their values and morals, even in new and challenging situations, providing them with a sense of stability and grounding.


ESFPs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Avoidance of conflict: ESFPs’ desire for positivity can make them uncomfortable with conflict. They may avoid confronting others or addressing uncomfortable situations in order to keep the atmosphere light-hearted, which may lead to unresolved issues in their personal and professional relationships.
  • Difficulty with routine and long-term planning: ESFPs thrive on variety and spontaneity, and may struggle with sticking to a consistent routine. This can be problematic in situations that require discipline and structure, such as school or a demanding job. It can also make it challenging for them to create and stick to long-term plans, leading to disorganization and missed opportunities.
  • Easily distracted: Because ESFPs are so focused on the present moment, they can be easily distracted by new and exciting experiences. This can lead to a lack of follow-through on important tasks or responsibilities.
  • Difficulty with criticism: Although ESFPs value the opinions of others, they may struggle to accept constructive criticism. They may take feedback personally, feeling hurt or defensive, and have difficulty separating their self-worth from the criticism.

Career choice

ESFPs often excel in creative fields that allow them to express themselves freely. Some suitable career options for ESFPs are:

  • Acting: ESFPs are natural performers and have a flair for the dramatic. They enjoy being the center of attention and thrive in roles that allow them to express their creativity.
  • Event planning: ESFPs are excellent at creating exciting and engaging experiences for others. They have an eye for detail and a natural sense of style, making them great event planners.
  • Sales representatives: ESFPs are charismatic and great at building relationships. They have a natural talent for persuasion and are skilled at closing deals.
  • Creative Industries: ESFPs’ strong aesthetic sense and creative energy make them well-suited for careers in music, fashion, photography, and interior design. They enjoy using their creativity to express themselves and create visually appealing experiences for others.
  • Healthcare: ESFPs have the ability to quickly pick up information about others, helping them get straight to the heart of the issue when dealing with the sick or injured., making them well-suited for careers in healthcare such as nursing, emergency medical services, and paramedicine. 
  • Social workers and counselors: ESFPs have a natural ability to connect with people and are highly empathetic. They can use their skills as counselors or social workers to help others and make a positive impact on their communities.

ESFPs may find careers that require a lot of analytical or technical skills, such as engineering, computer programming, or accounting, to be less suitable for them. These careers may not allow for enough social interaction, creativity, and immediate feedback, which are important for ESFPs to feel fulfilled and engaged in their work.


ESFPs bring their free-spirited and fun personality into their romantic relationships, seeking excitement and new experiences with their partners. They enjoy creating a romantic and exciting atmosphere for their significant other, and they are not afraid to show their love and appreciation through physical touch, gifts, or other gestures of affection. 

However, they may struggle with structure and finances in relationships, preferring spontaneity over planning and spending money on experiences rather than saving for the future. They need a partner who can balance their impulsive side with stability and responsibility, while still allowing them to express their adventurous nature. ESFPs may also struggle with commitment in relationships due to their desire for independence and new experiences. They may need some encouragement to settle down and commit to a long-term relationship, but once they do, they can be loyal and devoted partners.

ESFPs genuinely love having kids around and enjoy coming up with fun activities and adventures to spend time with them. As parents, they are known for their childlike playfulness that makes their children feel secure and happy, and nurtures their curiosity and creativity. As sensitive individuals, they expect their children to be respectful and considerate, and provide plenty of emotional support to encourage their growth and development.

In conclusion, ESFPs are outgoing and spontaneous individuals who have a zest for life. They are warm and affectionate, enjoying close relationships with friends and family. ESFPs are highly attuned to their senses and enjoy indulging in pleasurable experiences, from delicious food to exciting adventures. With their outgoing nature and ability to create fun and memorable experiences, ESFPs can inspire others to live life to the fullest. While they may face challenges in areas such as commitment and responsibility, ESFPs can use their strengths and positive energy to navigate these obstacles and create a fulfilling and joyful life!

Investigator (ISTJ) – Type Description

ISTJ is one of the 16 Myers & Briggs personality types, characterized by introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging. ISTJs, also known as “inspectors” or “investigators”, are known for their practicality, reliability, and integrity. They are conscientious individuals who take responsibility for their actions and always strive to do what is right. ISTJs value rules and order, and they strive to maintain stability and security in their lives. They are very detail-oriented and methodical in their approach to tasks, which allows them to achieve their goals efficiently and effectively. 

ISTJs have a strong sense of duty and a deep respect for tradition, which often leads them to be conservative and risk-averse. They may be seen as stubborn at times, but they are always willing to work hard to achieve their goals. ISTJs are very loyal and dependable, and they make excellent friends and employees. They enjoy routine and structure, and are often found in careers that require precise attention to detail, such as accounting, law enforcement, or administrative work.

Cognitive Functions of ISTJs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ISTJ personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ISTJs, 

Dominant Si: Individuals who use the Introverted Sensing (Si) function have an organized internal world and a highly accurate memory of past experiences. They are able to recall details and sensations from previous events, and their minds create categories to sort and store information. When faced with new experiences, they compare them to past experiences, which creates a sense of familiarity and continuity in their lives. However, it may also make it difficult for Si users to adapt to change or consider new ideas that do not fit with their pre-existing categories.

Auxiliary Te:   Extraverted Thinking (Te) allows individuals to take control and organize the external world around them. Te allows ISTJs to approach problems and challenges in a logical, efficient manner, and to take action based on their understanding of the situation at hand. 

Te provides a valuable balance to ISTJs’ internal focus on Si, allowing them to combine their knowledge and past experiences with the objective information available to them at the present moment, to interact with the external world in a logical and effective way. 

Due to ISTJs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their Intuition and Feeling functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (intuition), understanding and expressing emotions, and empathizing with others (feeling). 


Like all personality types, ISTJs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which include the following.

  • Reliability and practicality: ISTJs are reliable and consistent. Si helps ISTJs stay grounded in reality and Te gives them a practical approach to problem-solving. They are able to take a step back and assess situations objectively, without getting caught up in emotions or subjective opinions.
  • Calm and collected: ISTJs have the ability to maintain composure in high-stress situations. Their calm and practical nature allows them to make well-thought-out decisions even in the face of adversity. This makes them valuable team members in the workplace, as they can be relied upon to remain level-headed and focused when others may become overwhelmed.
  • Strong work ethic: ISTJs are hardworking and diligent, which earns them respect and trust from their peers and subordinates. They are willing to put in the time and effort necessary to complete tasks to the best of their ability.
  • Integrity and loyalty: ISTJs are fiercely loyal to their friends, family, and colleagues. They are committed to building strong and honest relationships and maintaining them over the long term. They take their commitments seriously and are dedicated to following through on their obligations. 
  • Leadership qualities: Although they may not specifically aspire to leadership roles, ISTJs’ natural tendency to prioritize structure and organization, combined with their sense of duty and responsibility, lends itself well to the role of a leader.


ISTJs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Critical and judgmental: ISTJs may struggle to see beyond the details they have cataloged in their minds. While this helps them manage complex situations, it can make it difficult to communicate with others who focus more on the bigger picture. It can be frustrating for them when others fail to see the importance of details, which they perceive as critical to the success of a project.
  • Reluctance to Change: ISTJs have a strong preference for following established procedures and standards, and they may be resistant to change. They feel more comfortable sticking to familiar routines due to their Si, and may struggle when faced with new or unfamiliar situations. 
  • High Self-Standards: ISTJs hold themselves to very high internal standards, which can lead to self-criticism and self-doubt. They can be overly hard on themselves, striving for perfection even in situations where it may not be necessary. This can cause them to focus on their shortcomings and overlook their successes.
  • Rigid thinking: ISTJs can become stuck in their ways and routines, which can make them critical of people who may hold a different perspective. It also makes them resistant to feedback or criticism that challenges their established methods.

Career choice

ISTJs typically enjoy work that requires them to gain specialized knowledge and master a specific set of procedures, whether it’s related to software, machines, or other systems that follow a logical and methodical pattern. Here are some career options that are well-suited for ISTJs:

  • Accounting: ISTJs are well-suited for careers in accounting due to their natural attention to detail, precision, and adherence to rules and regulations.
  • Administration: ISTJs thrive in administrative roles because they are highly organized, are able to execute complex projects with ease, and can effectively manage and streamline office operations.
  • Military: ISTJs possess a strong sense of duty, discipline, and structure, making them well-suited for careers in the military. 
  • Judiciary and Law Enforcement: Due to their dominant Si, ISTJs have a natural ability to retain and apply rules and regulations to make prompt and logical decisions, making them well-suited for careers in law enforcement and judiciary. 
  • Business management: ISTJs excel in managing orders, customers, and the day-to-day operations of a business with incredible efficiency and grace. 
  • Engineering: ISTJs are very comfortable working with concrete data and information. Their ability to think systematically and their focus on practical solutions makes them excellent candidates for engineering roles.

ISTJs may struggle in careers that involve a lot of ambiguity, abstract thinking, and unpredictability, for example, careers in the arts, creative writing, or acting, as well as tech startups or entrepreneurships. They may also struggle in roles that require constant social interaction or public speaking, such as sales or marketing. 


ISTJs are known for their loyalty, honesty, and dependability in relationships. They value a structured long-term commitment and look for a partner who shares similar values of responsibility and willingness to put in daily efforts. They tend to take on traditional gender roles in their household and place great importance on family values. ISTJs seek to establish clear expectations in their relationships and take care of their families in practical ways, such as by fulfilling their needs and making their lives more comfortable.

ISTJs often feel overlooked in their work environment and therefore desire a partner who can appreciate and recognize their efforts. Although not too emotionally expressive, they are consistent and direct about their feelings, preferring to resolve conflicts as quickly and efficiently as possible.

In terms of parenting, ISTJs tend to value traditional parent-child relationships, often using the same parenting techniques that their own parents used. They establish clear rules and expectations for their children and follow through with consequences, creating a stable and predictable environment for them to grow in. 

In conclusion, ISTJs are the backbone of society, providing the necessary stability and structure to ensure that things run smoothly. They are not usually interested in change for change’s sake and prefer to stick to what they know works. Their dedication to their work and their loved ones is unparalleled, and their reliability makes them invaluable in any team or organization. They are motivated to do the right thing and take pride in their accomplishments. With their strong sense of responsibility and duty, they can achieve anything they set their minds to and be a leader of their own destiny.

Mechanic (ISTP) – Type Description

ISTP is one of the 16 personality types defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), characterized by introversion, sensing, thinking, and perception. ISTPs, also called the “mechanics”, are practical thinkers, valuing their freedom and autonomy. They are known for their insatiable curiosity and exploratory nature, and enjoy moving from project to project. They are fascinated by how things work and enjoy taking things apart and putting them back together again, whether it’s a machine, a computer, or sometimes even a relationship.

ISTPs value direct communication and prefer to cut through any unnecessary pleasantries to get to the heart of the matter. They are quick thinkers who excel in crisis situations by staying calm and composed in the face of adversity. Their ability to find humor in challenging situations can help to diffuse tension and create a more relaxed work environment. They are able to handle whatever life throws their way with a practical, no-nonsense attitude and are often seen as problem-solvers, coming up with creative and unconventional solutions to challenges that others may find overwhelming.

Cognitive Functions of ISTPs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ISTP personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ISTPs, 

Dominant Ti: An Introverted Thinking (Ti) function allows individuals to analyze and process the world around them internally through logical and objective thinking. These individuals use their naturally technical mind to identify the inner workings and mechanics of systems. They tend to look at the principles, underlying factors and their context rather than just the surface level of things.

ISTPs tend to use their Ti function to rely on their own logic and analysis rather than external sources of information. This makes them very skilled at identifying patterns and the root causes of problems. In social situations, ISTPs use their Ti to analyze people and understand their motivations and thought processes. This can help them develop a better understanding of how to interact with others, as well as make more informed decisions about who they choose to spend time with.

Auxiliary Se: Extraverted Sensing (Se) focuses on the external world and immediate physical experiences. This function is concerned with taking in sensory information from the environment, focusing on the present moment, and being aware of concrete details. People who have an auxiliary Se are often energetic and action-oriented, and have the ability to quickly respond to changing circumstances.

Their auxiliary Se function complements the dominant Ti function by providing them with the sensory data they need to make logical decisions. Ti allows ISTPs to analyze and understand this information, while Se helps them to gather it in the first place. This combination of functions can make ISTPs very effective problem solvers who are able to quickly gather and analyze information to make decisions.

Due to ISTPs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their Intuition and Feeling functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (intuition), understanding and expressing emotions, empathizing with others, and understanding the impact of their decisions on others (feeling). 


Like all personality types, ISTPs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which are as follows.

  • Practical problem-solving and hands-on skills: ISTPs are skilled at using their dominant Ti function to analyze and solve practical problems. They are able to identify patterns and root causes of problems, making them effective at finding solutions. They are often skilled with their hands and enjoy working on practical projects. They have a knack for understanding how things work and are able to troubleshoot and fix problems.
  • Adaptability and spontaneity: ISTPs are able to quickly adapt to changes in their environment due to their auxiliary Se function. They are able to gather sensory information from their surroundings and take action accordingly, making them flexible and adaptable.
  • Confidence and calmness: ISTPs tend to have a confident and relaxed demeanor, which can be reassuring to those around them. They are often able to stay level-headed and composed in stressful situations, making them effective problem-solvers and leaders.
  • Resilience to criticism: ISTPs are generally not threatened by criticism and are able to handle it well. They tend to view criticism as an opportunity to learn and improve, rather than taking it personally.
  • Optimism and positivity: ISTPs often have an optimistic and light-hearted attitude, which can make them enjoyable to be around. They are able to find humor in difficult situations and can be uplifting to those around them.


Some potential weaknesses of ISTPs may include:

  • Resistance to commitment: ISTPs may have difficulty setting and achieving long-term goals, as they tend to live in the present moment and enjoy exploring new opportunities as they arise. They also resist making long-term commitments in their personal or professional lives, as they prefer to keep their options open and avoid feeling trapped or restricted. 
  • Blunt and insensitive communication: ISTPs may struggle with tactful communication and can come across as blunt or insensitive. They may prioritize logic over emotions, leading them to dismiss or downplay the feelings of others.
  • Impulsiveness and risk-taking: ISTPs may become bored or restless in situations that lack excitement or novelty. This often leads them to engage in risky behaviors just for the fun of it and make impulsive decisions. While this can lead to exciting experiences, it may also lead to negative consequences if not properly balanced with their Ti function.
  • Low tolerance for boredom: ISTPs are known to have a low tolerance for boredom and may quickly lose interest in tasks or activities that they perceive as mundane or repetitive. They may struggle with maintaining routines or following strict procedures, which can be challenging in certain work or academic settings.

Career choice

ISTPs are known for their practicality, independence, and problem-solving skills. They are often drawn to careers that allow them to work with their hands, see how different pieces of machines, systems, as well as information and facts fit together, and solve real-world problems. Here are some career options that may be a good fit for ISTPs:

  • Skilled Trades: ISTPs are often drawn to careers in skilled trades, such as carpentry, welding, or plumbing. They enjoy working with their hands and finding practical solutions to problems.
  • Engineering: ISTPs have a natural talent for understanding how things work and may excel in engineering fields. They may enjoy careers in architectural, mechanical, electrical, or civil engineering.
  • IT and Technology: ISTPs are often tech-savvy and enjoy exploring new technology. They may excel in careers as software developers, network administrators, or computer technicians.
  • Emergency Services: ISTPs can think on their feet, come up with quick solutions, and thrive in high-pressure situations. They may be well-suited for careers in emergency services such as firefighting or law enforcement.
  • Athletics: ISTPs have a natural athleticism and may excel in careers in sports such as professional athlete, personal trainer, or coach.

ISTPs may struggle in careers that require them to focus on routine tasks, such as data entry or administrative work. They may also find careers that require extensive interpersonal interactions or emotional labor, such as counseling or social work, to be challenging.


ISTPs are known to be loyal and productive employees who use their unique perspective and logic to solve hands-on problems at work. They rely on their dominant Ti to think outside the box and find solutions that are not just based on pre-made criteria or protocol. While they may have a laid-back approach to work, ISTPs are still reliable and get things done. However, their spontaneous nature means they can quickly become bored and move on to new projects if they feel they have explored everything there is to explore, or if their boss imposes unnecessary guidelines or deadlines.

ISTPs’ curiosity and desire to explore can also lead them to interfere in other people’s work matters. Although this can be helpful in some situations, it may also be perceived as annoying by colleagues. They also have a tendency to be “cold” and blunt in their communication due to their less developed Feeling function. Despite this, they are generally well-liked in the workplace due to their acceptance of individual differences in opinions and their sense of humor, which can diffuse stressful situations and create a positive atmosphere.

As managers, ISTPs are deliberate in their choice of employees and strive to create a relaxed work environment, giving their employees the autonomy to make their own decisions without micromanaging them. They treat their employees fairly and foster a supportive workplace culture. 


People with the ISTP personality type are known for their exciting, calm, and fun-loving nature, making them an exciting partner to be with. They are passionate and sensual, often looking to explore shared interests and hobbies with their partners. Despite their strong feelings for their partners, ISTPs can sometimes struggle to open up emotionally, so they often show their love through physical touch and acts of service, like helping around the house or doing practical things to make their partner’s life easier. 

The present moment is where they thrive, and they generally do not make commitments beyond the immediate foreseeable future. Any attempts by their partners to change them or impose obligations on them can quickly make ISTPs lose interest in the relationship. For ISTPs, their sense of independence is paramount, and they need to feel free to live in the moment without any additional pressures. However, when they truly care about someone, ISTPs will do their part on a daily basis to keep the relationship strong and healthy. They go to great lengths to show their loyalty and commitment to their partners.

ISTP parents tend to be hands-off and let their children explore the world on their own, often encouraging their children to take risks and learn from their experiences. ISTP parents enjoy sharing physical activities with their children, but they struggle with emotional bonding. They may rely on their partner or make a conscious effort to provide emotional support.

In conclusion, the ISTP personality type is a unique and admirable blend of practicality, independence, and curiosity. They are analytical and adaptable problem-solvers who excel under pressure and in hands-on activities. Their spontaneity and love for physical activities make them exciting and fun-loving individuals, always ready for a new adventure. ISTPs are straightforward and action-oriented, with a remarkable ability to make quick, sound decisions. Their logical minds, adventurous spirit, and ability to seize the moment make them valuable contributors to any setting. 

Defender (ISFJ) – Type Description

ISFJ is one of the 16 personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), characterized by introversion, sensing, feeling, and judgment. Known as the “defender” or “protector,” they are practical, responsible, and deeply loyal individuals who place a high value on tradition and stability. ISFJs are compassionate and caring towards others, and are often seen as the backbone of their community. They have a strong sense of duty towards their family, friends, and community, and are willing to go to great lengths to ensure their well-being. They reward kindness with kindness, and their close relationships are based on trust, mutual respect, and a willingness to support each other through thick and thin.

ISFJs have high standards for their work and are meticulous in their approach to tasks and planning. They are detail-oriented and have a keen eye for spotting small changes in their environment. They take pride in their work and are committed to delivering high-quality results, often going the extra mile to ensure that everything is done to perfection. ISFJs can be reserved and private, but they are warm and approachable towards those they trust. They have a calm and composed demeanor and prefer to avoid conflict, seeking harmony and cooperation in their relationships. All in all, ISFJs are compassionate, responsible, and dependable individuals who are deeply committed to their values and those they care about.

Cognitive Functions of ISFJs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ISFJ personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ISFJs, 

Dominant Si: Individuals who use the Introverted Sensing (Si) function have an organized internal world and a highly accurate memory of past experiences. They are able to recall details and sensations from previous events, and their minds create categories to sort and store information. When faced with new experiences, they compare them to past experiences, which creates a sense of familiarity and continuity in their lives. However, it may also make it difficult for Si users to adapt to change or consider new ideas that do not fit with their pre-existing categories.

Auxiliary Fe: People with an auxiliary Extraverted Feeling (Fe) function tend to be empathetic and sensitive to the needs and emotions of others. They are skilled at interpreting and responding to social cues, but may struggle with confrontation or expressing their own needs. They pay attention to the impact their actions and words have on others and may seek to create a sense of connection and community.

As an auxiliary function, Fe helps ISFJs to be sensitive to others’ needs and to be able to empathize with others. It also helps them to make decisions that are emotionally intelligent and sensitive to the feelings of everyone involved.

Due to ISFJs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their intuition and thinking functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (intuition), strategic planning and rational decision making (thinking). 


Like all personality types, ISFJs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which are as follows.

  • Judgment and decision-making: ISFJs are skilled at making sound judgments and decisions. Their dominant Si allows them to draw on past experiences and memories to inform their decision-making process. They are able to weigh the pros and cons of a situation, consider potential outcomes, and make decisions that align with their values and principles.
  • Empathy and compassion: ISFJs have a natural empathy and compassion for others, which stems from their auxiliary Fe. They are able to understand and relate to the emotions of others, are skilled at diffusing tense or uncomfortable situations,and are often sought out as trusted confidants and advisors.
  • Reliability and stability: ISFJs thrive in stable environments and are committed to maintaining a sense of consistency and routine due to their dominant Si. They are able to create a sense of order and predictability in their personal and professional lives, making them reliable and trustworthy.
  • Loyalty and dedication: ISFJs are extremely loyal to their friends, family, and colleagues. They have a strong sense of duty and are committed to supporting those they care about. They are willing to go above and beyond to help others, and their dedication is unwavering.


Some potential weaknesses of ISFJs include:

  • Rigidity and inflexibility: ISFJs may be too attached to established traditions and routines due to their dominant Si, making it difficult for them to adapt to new situations and places. They may also be resistant to change, leading to missed opportunities for growth and development.
  • Avoidance of Emotional Vulnerability: ISFJs have a tendency to repress their feelings, particularly negative ones. Because they prioritize the feelings and needs of others due to their Fe, ISFJs may neglect their own emotional well-being and suppress their own emotions. This can lead to them feeling overwhelmed or resentful, and may cause them to withdraw from social situations or become passive-aggressive in their interactions with others.
  • Over Reliance on past experiences: While ISFJs’ strong sense of personal history can be an asset, it can also lead to over-reliance on past experiences and a reluctance to try new things. They may struggle with taking risks and stepping outside of their comfort zone.  
  • Tendency to be overly self-critical: ISFJs have high personal standards and may be overly critical of themselves when they fail to meet their own expectations. This can lead to feelings of inadequacy and self-doubt.

Career choice

ISFJs are known for their strong work ethic, attention to detail, and deep sense of responsibility. They prefer careers that allow them to make a tangible difference in the lives of others, and that align with their values and beliefs. Here are some career options that may be a good fit for ISFJs:

  • Healthcare professionals: ISFJs are well-suited for careers in healthcare due to their compassionate and caring nature. They may excel as nurses, medical assistants, or social workers.
  • Teachers or educational administrators: ISFJs’ desire to help others and make a positive impact can lead them to careers in education. They may excel as teachers or administrators who create a supportive learning environment for their students.
  • Accountants or bookkeepers: While not typically associated with artistic expression, ISFJs’ attention to detail and organizational skills can make them well-suited for careers in finance. They may excel as accountants, bookkeepers, or financial analysts.
  • Administrative assistants: ISFJs are often very organized and enjoy helping others, making them well-suited for administrative roles. They may excel as executive assistants, office managers, or in similar positions.
  • Service industry roles: ISFJs enjoy careers that allow them to use their attention to detail and sensory awareness. They may excel as chefs, bartenders, or in customer service roles where they can provide a high level of personal attention and care to their customers.

ISFJs may struggle in careers that require them to take risks or make quick decisions without much time for deliberation. They may also find careers that require extensive public speaking or networking to be challenging, as they prefer to work behind the scenes and avoid the spotlight.


ISFJs in the workplace are highly valued for their dependability, frugality, and attention to detail. They are willing to work long hours and are willing to take on thankless tasks that others may overlook. However, they may become resentful if their contributions and economies are taken for granted, causing them to experience feelings of bottled-up emotion that can cause undeserved suffering. 

ISFJs are highly organized and have a strong desire to see rules and regulations enforced. They have a strong sense of morality and tend to be preoccupied with ensuring that everyone is treated fairly and with respect. ISFJs are keenly aware of the social order and hierarchy and believe in upholding custom and convention. They have a deep respect for authority and are often attracted to executive positions. 

While they may not actively seek out leadership positions, their interpersonal skills and work ethic lend themselves well to managing others in a warm and approachable manner. They create an environment where their employees feel valued and appreciated for their hard work. Moreover, as team members, they enjoy close-knit and supportive teams, where they can express their altruistic spirit. They are highly cooperative and work well with others to implement their goals. 


ISFJs are devoted to their partners and families, and are often excellent homemakers. With a strong sense of duty, they take great pride in creating a welcoming and attractive home. They manage household tasks very well, such as providing nourishing meals, shopping, minor repairs, and maintaining a daily routine of cleanliness, tidiness, and order. Female ISFJs in particular, often display their talent for creating a traditional and inviting home interior. 

ISFJs are very devoted and loyal in their relationships. They take their commitments seriously and are willing to put in the effort required to maintain a healthy and loving partnership. ISFJs may struggle with expressing their emotions verbally and often show their affection through acts of service, like preparing a meal for their partner, doing their share of chores or anything that would make their partner’s life more comfortable. They are highly attentive to their partner’s needs, owing to their auxiliary Fe, and are willing to make all kinds of sacrifices to support them. However, the tendency to put their partner’s needs before their own can sometimes lead to issues in the relationship, and they may express their suppressed frustration in the form of resentment or stubbornness.

ISFJs parents are attentive to their children’s emotional and physical needs, and strive to create a stable and supportive home environment. They also tend to be very traditional in their approach to parenting. They often have strong values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, and they pass these values on to their children. ISFJs may be strict when it comes to discipline, but they do so out of a desire to instill in them a sense of responsibility and respect for authority.

In conclusion, the ISFJ personality type embodies a unique set of traits that make them invaluable members of any team or community. With their exceptional organizational skills and attention to detail, they possess a rare ability to manage complex situations with ease and grace. Their innate sense of compassion and desire to provide for others makes them natural caregivers, always going above and beyond to ensure everyone’s needs are met. By continuing to develop their strengths and embrace their natural tendencies, individuals with the ISFJ personality type can achieve great success and make a profound impact in the world.

Find Your True MBTI Type Through the Dichotomies

The human personality is a complex and multifaceted aspect of our being that influences how we perceive and interact with the world around us. There are several theories and frameworks that have been developed over the years to help us understand our own personality traits and tendencies. In this guide, we will delve into the popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which categorizes individuals into 16 distinct personality types based on four dichotomies: Introversion vs. Extraversion, Intuition vs. Sensing, Thinking vs. Feeling, and Judging vs. Perceiving. 

Through this guide, you will gain a deeper understanding of each dimension and its role in shaping your personality, allowing you to better identify your own preferences and tendencies.

Depending on your preference, you may watch the video or continue reading the rest of the article below.

Introversion and Extraversion: Two Distinct Worlds

The concept of introversion and extraversion was first introduced by Carl Jung, who identified two very distinct but equally valid worlds – the inner world and the outer world. The inner world is more subjective and is where our thoughts, memories, feelings, and priorities reside. This is a world that only we, as individuals, can see. On the other hand, the outer world is the world of people, objects, activities, and common knowledge that is accepted and shared by others.

Introversion and extraversion are not simply a matter of being right or left-handed, but rather a response to our environment. To understand this concept, consider the metaphor of the shore and land. Strong swimmers still need to go back to the shore to recharge, just as introverts need solitude to replenish their psychic and cognitive energy. To determine whether you are an introvert or an extrovert, consider whether solitude and the inner world energize you or tire you out. For introverts, the inner world and solitude are similar to the shore, where they go to recharge after a day spent swimming in the world of people and activities. For extroverts, the outer world (the sea) is where they feel energized and thrive.

Some people are ambivert, meaning they are well-developed in both introversion and extroversion, and may have trouble figuring out their true preferences.

In terms of characteristics and behavior, extroverts tend to be lively, animated, talkative, and have a warm and friendly demeanor. They may dress in bright colors and have a fast-paced way of speaking. On the other hand, introverts are usually calm, quiet, reflective, and may have a more understated style of dressing, often in black or dark colors. They may appear aloof or distant, but this is often simply because they are feeling comfortable in their own space.

Intuition versus Sensing: The Two Ways of Perception

Intuition and sensing are two different ways of perceiving information. They are often used to describe different personalities and how individuals process information. Understanding the distinction between these two concepts can help us understand why some people see things in different ways.

Intuition looks at the meaning of things and the connections between them. It’s about possibility and potential. Intuitive people are more interested in abstract ideas and concepts, and less concerned with concrete details. They care about what things represent, and are more focused on the bigger picture.

Sensing, on the other hand, is concrete. Sensing people prefer to see things as they are, and process information through their five senses. They are practical, grounded in reality, and are less interested in the abstract connections between things. They are very curious and want to know the specifics of a situation, like the color of a bridge or the details of a book.

In terms of behavior, sensing individuals tend to be more realistic, traditional, and detail-oriented. They are down-to-earth, and focused on facts, as opposed to abstract concepts. Intuitive individuals, on the other hand, are more creative, imaginative, and less concerned with the practical reality. They’re more of “head in the clouds” kind of people and can be considered quirky or absent-minded.

An example of the contrast between intuition and sensing can be seen when two individuals look at the same book in a store. A “sensing” person is likely to first notice the tangible details of the book first, like its cover, color, and size. After noticing these details, the person may then start to consider the idea behind the book and if it is relevant to them. An intuitive person, on the other hand, might first notice the bigger picture. They might be more interested in the ideas, concepts and possibilities the book represented, rather than just the details like the cover, color, and age.

Ultimately, where an individual falls on the scale of intuition to sensing is a matter of personal preference. Some individuals may have a strong preference for one over the other, while others may fall somewhere in between. 

Thinking versus Feeling: The Two Sides of Decision Making

When it comes to decision making and evaluating, there are two distinct approaches that people tend to follow – thinking and feeling. While both of these approaches have their own logic and make sense in their own right, they are fundamentally different from each other.

Thinking is impersonal in nature and is more about objectively evaluating the facts and data involved in a decision. It is concerned with making decisions that are based on facts and data, rather than personal preferences. A person who relies more on thinking might, for example, consider factors like speed, investment value, and utility when deciding on which car to buy.

On the other hand, feeling is more subjective and personal. It is concerned with making decisions based on personal values, principles, and emotions. A person who relies more on feeling might choose a car based on color, brand, or simply what appeals to them. They may not be as concerned with quantifiable factors like investment value or speed, but rather the emotional connection they have to a particular car.

Of course, most people use both thinking and feeling to some extent when making decisions, but there are often different weights given to each approach depending on the individual, which shapes their personality and how they interact with the world. 

Judging and Perceiving: Two Different Approaches to Structure and Closure

The Judging/Perceiving preference is indicated by either a “J” or “P” in a person’s MBTI type code, and it is one of four dichotomies that make up a person’s personality type in the MBTI framework. 

Judging individuals are typically seen as needing closure and structure in their lives. They tend to like rules, procedures, and norms, and they prefer to have clear and measurable objectives. They like to finish projects and like to know what they’re working towards.

Perceiving individuals, on the other hand, tend to be more flexible and go with the flow. Their sense of time is often more fluid, and they may not be as concerned with deadlines and structure. They like to keep their options open and are comfortable with change.

As you reflect on these dimensions of personality, consider which preferences resonate with you the most and how they may shape the way you perceive and interact with the world around you. What do you feel are your tendencies for each dimension?

We hope this guide helped you identify your 4-letter MBTI code, as it is essential for furthering your personal growth and self-awareness. By understanding your unique type, you can gain a greater understanding of your capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses, as well as how to best use them to your advantage. With this knowledge, you can make the most of your potential, more effectively strive towards your goals and achieve greater success and happiness in your personal and professional life.

How To Motivate An Introverted Employee

Do you have an employee who gave the first impression that they are a very thoughtful, creative, and smart person?  Even though this person can produce high-quality work from time to time, they seem a bit distant and uncommunicative or even arrogant…

The chances are your new employee is an introvert!  You wish there was a way to motivate them and make that employee more productive and communicative.  The solution is first to understand how and why they are different, to realize that their minds are made-up differently from the mind of an extrovert.  

Introversion versus extroversion:

The basic definition of introversion versus extroversion is that extroverts are more comfortable with and prefer to direct their mental energy toward the outside world, other people, or objects.  In contrast, introverts tend to prefer living in the world of their minds and their thoughts.  When introverts are forced into a team or a very crowded environment for too long, the situation will deplete their energy, and they will become very drained. 

Introverts gain energy from the comfort of their inner thoughts and feelings

Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was the first to distinguish extroversion and introversion, the two major orientations of personality.  We continue to learn from Jung’s findings and ongoing psychoanalytical research leads to greater understanding of personality types to help managers in the workplace.

Cognitive sciences have discovered two main ways that introverted minds are different:

1.    Introverts process incoming information more slowly because they filter information thoroughly before considering the input. Their neural pathway to process information is longer than that of extroverts.  This is because they use the parasympathetic side of the brain, and the pathways are much longer, meaning they need more time for the information to be processed.  Hence introverts can easily become over-stimulated with too much external information from the environment. 

Scientists can detect the differences between introvert and extrovert babies as early as four months old. Extroverts easily take stimulation because the two parts of the brain they use have a much smaller pathway than introverts. This neurological difference explains why extroverts tend to be active and action-oriented, actively seeking out stimulating experiences. While, in contrast, introverts tend to be more idiosyncratic in their preference for a slower and manageable pace.

Scientists can detect introverted babies as early as 4-month old!

2. The second difference is that because the part of the brain used to process information and the part of the brain connected to communication and processing verbal input are quite separated in introverts.  Hence, they can go on for long periods of time without talking or communicating with other people.   Conversely, an extrovert will get the juices flowing, think, and speak at the same time.  They will enjoy brainstorming with other people, thinking and talking simultaneously.  

So, when you know these differences, you can begin to understand why there are behavioral differences between introvert and extrovert team members.  You see, it’s not that your introverted employee is having an attitude or trying to be distant on purpose; it’s just how their brain works.

How to spot an introverted employee

They tend to be

  1. Calm: He or she exudes a calming presence.
  2. Listeners: They tend to listen more than they talk.  This is especially noticeable in a team meeting when they appear more reflective.
  3. Having subdued Dress Style: Introverts tend to dress subtly.  Their clothing is usually understated, preferring dark colors.  They don’t want to stand out too much.  Compare this with extroverted employees who dress in more vibrant, outstanding colors and styles.

In fact, a lot of people think that introverts are a minority in the population.  However, many surveys have shown that introverts and extroverts are actually about 50/50 in a population.

The reason they seem to be the minority is that they don’t compete with the extroverts for attention.  They don’t speak up that much, preferring to think through the information before voicing an opinion.  They’re the silent half of the population! Another possible explanation is that many introverts would put on an “extrovert mask” on social settings to blend in better (even if it’s pretty draining), giving the impression that there are ways more extroverts to the untrained eyes.

Introverts bring unique strengths to the team

Now you know the differences between introverts and extroverts, you can appreciate the unique strengths of the introverted employee:

  • Because they spend more time reflecting and coming up with something that is truly unique, you can expect their work to be more creative and original.
  • You can also expect them to be thorough and meticulous because they think things through and process a lot of information inside their head before they talk about and show the result.   
  • Lastly, introverts have high moral principles.  Most of the time, introverts value their integrity and authenticity very highly.  It’s a useful attribute to balance the team in the workplace, especially against the fast-paced and cut-throat cultures of many workplaces nowadays.

How to motivate the introverted employee

So, how do you as a manager nurture and encourage better productivity and motivation from an introverted employee?  There are four ways you can do it:

1. When you assign them some work or a task, give them a lot of upfront information so they can process it, but then give them space.  There is this golden rule of two to forty-eight hours, depending on the complexity of the task, that works very well with introverts.  Give your introverted employee the time to think through all the input and process the information. In return, they will give you very thorough and very considered work results. 

2.  The second way you can help them is to complement their weaknesses.  Since they are a more reflective and somewhat individualistic employee, you can support them with your own strengths or that of another team member:

For example, you can provide them with social connections to others in the team.  Because it’s usual that introverts find it challenging to initiate social contact themselves, you can quickly introduce them to other team members.  By introducing them to other stakeholders that are relevant o the project, you help them to be able to touch base and integrate into the team.

You can assist an introverted employee by introducing him or her to other stakeholders/coworkers

3. You can assist them by giving clear deadlines and KPI expectations.  Because introverts are so reflective and usually perfectionistic, they are not good with deadlines.  So, you need to be clear regarding when you need the result.   When you have clear KPIs, they are certain of your expectations, and you can best optimize their thought process and creativity.

4.   Lastly, keep your introverted employee motivated.  Once they have finished their work, it’s important to praise the work, but moderately, because they can easily detect unnecessary and superfluous compliments.   So give them the praise that they deserve for their originality and creativity.  Praise them for their hard work and their meticulousness.  This valid, genuine praise will be a sure way to make sure you keep your introverted employee happy and motivated.


When you are aware of introverted characteristics you are better able to manage introverted team members.  Doing so is a case of considering how the different personality types function.  Introverted employees are motivated by receiving information in advance of meetings, enabling them to think about the content prior to the meeting.  Introverts will also think about ideas and get back to you later with their contributions.  A manager who considers personality types of the whole team are rewarded with wider contributions and a happier team.