Exploring Attachment Styles: A Guide to Better Relationships

Do you ever wonder why you get so attached to potential partners so quickly? Why you bend over backwards to make them happy, even when they seem distant? At the core, you likely yearn for a relationship where you can truly be yourself without fear of being “too much” or not “enough.” If so, you’re not alone. Many people struggle with one of two issues – getting too invested too quickly, or keeping others at an emotional distance. Both can leave us frustrated in relationships when desires for closeness aren’t balanced with needs for independence.

The root of such relationship difficulties often traces back to differences in attachment styles – ingrained patterns that shape how we emotionally connect with others. Whether you find yourself constantly longing for approval, naturally hesitant around intimacy, or somewhere in between, awareness is the first step towards positive change. This comprehensive guide will help you recognize your attachment style, which is the key to breaking out of this pattern and navigating relationships more effectively. 

The Four Attachment Styles

 According to psychologist John Bowlby, there are four primary attachment styles formed in childhood: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant. Each style results from our early life experiences with caregivers. The attitudes and responses of our first attachments – our parents or guardians – lay the foundation. When children have attentive caregivers who respond consistently and warmly to their needs, they are likely to develop a secure attachment style. Caregivers who are absent, rejecting, or inconsistent may lead children to develop one of the insecure styles – anxious, dismissive, or fearful. 

Fast forward to adulthood, and these ingrained childhood attachment styles are awakened when romantic relationships become emotionally intimate. Our early programming kicks in, and we unconsciously default to the same attachment patterns, even if they no longer work. We continue responding from the emotional blueprints carved out in our first relationships. Let’s take a closer look at the four attachment styles and how they impact our relationships – for better or worse. 

The Secure Attachment Style

The secure attachment style is often considered the gold standard of attachment styles, characterized by individuals who have a positive view of themselves and others. According to research, 50 percent of the population has a secure attachment style. Such individuals feel comfortable with both intimacy and independence, forming healthy and balanced relationships. They typically have a strong sense of self-worth and believe in their own capabilities. They are confident in expressing their needs while also being attentive and responsive to the needs of their partners. 

Secure individuals have a natural inclination to provide emotional support and comfort to their partners. They offer a sense of stability and reassurance, creating an environment where both partners feel seen, heard, and validated. This emotional availability and responsiveness cultivate a strong sense of intimacy, reliability, and trust within the relationship. As a result of these characteristics, those with a secure attachment style often experience stable and satisfying relationships. 

While individuals with a secure attachment style may still face challenges and occasional relationship conflicts, their secure foundation allows them to navigate these difficulties with resilience and adaptability. The secure attachment style serves as an inspiring model for cultivating healthier relationship dynamics, even for those who may currently identify with other attachment styles.

The Anxious-Preoccupied Attachment Style

The anxious-preoccupied attachment style or often simply known as anxious attachment is characterized by a strong desire for closeness and intimacy, coupled with a fear of abandonment. Estimates suggest that 20 percent of the population possesses an anxious attachment style. Individuals with this attachment style often seek constant reassurance and validation from their partners, yearning for a deep emotional connection. However, their fear of rejection and abandonment can create challenges within their relationships. 

Individuals with an anxious-preoccupied attachment style tend to have a negative perception of themselves. They may struggle with self-doubt, insecurity, and a fear of not being worthy of love. As a result, they often seek external validation to soothe their anxieties and boost their self-esteem. This constant need for reassurance can lead to clinginess, possessiveness, and a strong emotional dependency on their partners.

Communication for those with an anxious-preoccupied attachment style is often marked by emotional intensity and a tendency to overanalyze. They may frequently seek clarification and confirmation of their partner’s feelings, fearing any signs of potential rejection. This hyper-vigilance can strain the relationship as they constantly seek validation and reassurance, leading to repetitive questioning, jealousy, and heightened anxiety.

Individuals with this attachment style may have difficulty managing disagreements and may fear that conflicts will lead to the dissolution of the relationship. As a result, they may avoid conflict altogether or become excessively anxious and emotional during conflicts. The fear of abandonment and the need for constant reassurance can amplify their emotional response and hinder effective resolution.

The Dismissive-Avoidant Attachment Style

Anxious-preoccupied and  dismissive-avoidant attachment style are two sides of the same coin. They are both the result of ineffective and extreme emotional regulation, where the former seeks constant validation while the latter disassociates and tries to drown out emotions all together. Often simply known as avoidant attachment, it is characterized by individuals who exhibit emotional distance and a strong inclination towards independence. Research estimates suggest that around 25 percent of individuals are dismissive-avoidant, making it the second most common attachment style. Those with this attachment style often struggle with forming deep emotional connections and may find it challenging to rely on others. 

They tend to have a positive view of themselves but a dismissive and avoidant attitude towards others. They often prioritize self-reliance and autonomy, valuing independence over emotional intimacy. They may downplay the importance of close relationships and prefer to maintain a level of emotional distance to avoid feelings of vulnerability or dependency.

Communication for individuals with a dismissive-avoidant attachment style can be marked by a preference for logical reasoning and a tendency to minimize emotional expressions. They may struggle to fully express their own emotions and may have difficulty understanding or empathizing with the emotions of their partners. This emotional distance can create a barrier to deeper emotional connection and understanding within the relationship.

Conflict resolution can be particularly challenging for those with a dismissive-avoidant attachment style. They have a tendency to withdraw emotionally or physically during conflicts, seeking solitude as a means of self-protection. They often struggle with addressing emotional needs or may downplay the significance of conflict, dismissing its impact on the relationship. This avoidance of conflict and emotional disengagement can hinder effective resolution and create further distance between partners.

The Fearful-Avoidant Attachment Style

The fearful-avoidant attachment style, also known as the disorganized attachment style, is characterized by conflicting desires for closeness and independence. According to research, it is the least common attachment style, found in only 5 percent of the population. Individuals with this attachment style often experience internal struggles and mixed emotions when it comes to forming and maintaining relationships. 

Those with a fearful-avoidant attachment style often have a negative view of both themselves and others. They may struggle with trust and may have experienced past traumas or inconsistent caregiving, leading to a fear of both intimacy and abandonment. As a result, they may exhibit ambivalence and unpredictability in their relationships, experiencing a push-pull dynamic of seeking closeness while simultaneously fearing it.

Communication for individuals with a fearful-avoidant attachment style can be marked by confusion and uncertainty. They may have difficulty expressing their needs and emotions clearly, as they may feel torn between their desire for connection and their fear of vulnerability. This conflicting internal struggle can result in mixed signals, emotional distancing, and difficulties in establishing effective communication patterns with their partners.

When it comes to conflict resolution, such people may oscillate between avoiding conflicts altogether or becoming overwhelmed by intense emotions during conflicts. This ambivalence can lead to a fear of rejection and a reluctance to address relationship issues head-on, further complicating the resolution process and potentially perpetuating cycles of unresolved conflicts.

Impact of Different Attachment Styles on Relationships

Different attachment styles can significantly impact relationship dynamics and satisfaction. In relationships where both partners have a secure attachment style, there is a strong foundation of trust, effective communication, and emotional support. These relationships tend to be characterized by mutual respect, healthy boundaries, and a sense of security. Partners can rely on each other for support and navigate challenges with a sense of resilience and understanding. Securely attached people are often very good at forming long lasting relationships.

However, when partners have different attachment styles, challenges may arise. For instance, when a person with an anxious-preoccupied attachment style is in a relationship with someone who has a dismissive-avoidant attachment style, it can create a cycle of pursuit and withdrawal. The anxious-preoccupied individual may crave closeness and reassurance, while the dismissive-avoidant individual may resist emotional intimacy, leading to a pattern of emotional disconnection and frustration.

Similarly, relationships involving a person with a fearful-avoidant attachment style can experience intense fluctuations between the desire for closeness and the fear of abandonment. This can create an unpredictable and emotionally volatile environment, making it challenging for both partners to establish a sense of stability and security.

Can a Secure Attachment Style be developed?

The key for healthier relationship patterns are for partners to work towards developing a more secure attachment style. The good news is that your style is not set in stone. While our early experiences with caregivers play a significant role in shaping our attachment style, it is not the only factor. Later life experiences, such as positive romantic relationships or therapeutic interventions, can help individuals develop a more secure attachment style.

With awareness and effort, an “earned secure attachment” can be developed. Just like a skill you can develop over time, you have the power to cultivate a more secure attachment style. It is a personal growth process that starts with self-awareness and continues with intentional efforts. Reflect on your own attachment patterns and how they show up in your relationships. Identify any patterns or triggers that contribute to feelings of insecurity or emotional challenges.

Another effective approach for personal development is being in a relationship with a secure partner. Regardless of whether you lean toward anxious or avoidant tendencies, there’s much to glean from observing how a secure partner maintains healthy communication and boundaries. The key is to approach this with an open mind and avoid hastily labeling the emotionally stable partner as boring or uninteresting, since many mistakenly equate emotional highs and lows with genuine love.


Every attachment style comes with strengths as well as areas for growth. While challenging at times, recognizing unhealthy patterns and unconscious beliefs within yourself is the first step to overcoming them. Reflect on how your style affects your relationships, seek perspectives from loved ones and be open to improving communication and compromise. As you practice these skills, even deeply ingrained attachment patterns can evolve over time. Anxious types can learn to balance dependence and focus on self-worth. Avoidants can overcome defenses and open up to true intimacy. Whatever your attachment style, learning more about yourself and others holds the potential to transform your relationships into ones filled with trust, warmth and fulfillment.


Defender (ISFJ) – Type Description

ISFJ is one of the 16 personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), characterized by introversion, sensing, feeling, and judgment. Known as the “defender” or “protector,” they are practical, responsible, and deeply loyal individuals who place a high value on tradition and stability. ISFJs are compassionate and caring towards others, and are often seen as the backbone of their community. They have a strong sense of duty towards their family, friends, and community, and are willing to go to great lengths to ensure their well-being. They reward kindness with kindness, and their close relationships are based on trust, mutual respect, and a willingness to support each other through thick and thin.

ISFJs have high standards for their work and are meticulous in their approach to tasks and planning. They are detail-oriented and have a keen eye for spotting small changes in their environment. They take pride in their work and are committed to delivering high-quality results, often going the extra mile to ensure that everything is done to perfection. ISFJs can be reserved and private, but they are warm and approachable towards those they trust. They have a calm and composed demeanor and prefer to avoid conflict, seeking harmony and cooperation in their relationships. All in all, ISFJs are compassionate, responsible, and dependable individuals who are deeply committed to their values and those they care about.

Cognitive Functions of ISFJs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ISFJ personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ISFJs, 

Dominant Si: Individuals who use the Introverted Sensing (Si) function have an organized internal world and a highly accurate memory of past experiences. They are able to recall details and sensations from previous events, and their minds create categories to sort and store information. When faced with new experiences, they compare them to past experiences, which creates a sense of familiarity and continuity in their lives. However, it may also make it difficult for Si users to adapt to change or consider new ideas that do not fit with their pre-existing categories.

Auxiliary Fe: People with an auxiliary Extraverted Feeling (Fe) function tend to be empathetic and sensitive to the needs and emotions of others. They are skilled at interpreting and responding to social cues, but may struggle with confrontation or expressing their own needs. They pay attention to the impact their actions and words have on others and may seek to create a sense of connection and community.

As an auxiliary function, Fe helps ISFJs to be sensitive to others’ needs and to be able to empathize with others. It also helps them to make decisions that are emotionally intelligent and sensitive to the feelings of everyone involved.

Due to ISFJs’ focus on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their intuition and thinking functions are less developed, which can lead to a lack of intuitive or abstract thinking (intuition), strategic planning and rational decision making (thinking). 


Like all personality types, ISFJs also have their own unique set of strengths, some of which are as follows.

  • Judgment and decision-making: ISFJs are skilled at making sound judgments and decisions. Their dominant Si allows them to draw on past experiences and memories to inform their decision-making process. They are able to weigh the pros and cons of a situation, consider potential outcomes, and make decisions that align with their values and principles.
  • Empathy and compassion: ISFJs have a natural empathy and compassion for others, which stems from their auxiliary Fe. They are able to understand and relate to the emotions of others, are skilled at diffusing tense or uncomfortable situations,and are often sought out as trusted confidants and advisors.
  • Reliability and stability: ISFJs thrive in stable environments and are committed to maintaining a sense of consistency and routine due to their dominant Si. They are able to create a sense of order and predictability in their personal and professional lives, making them reliable and trustworthy.
  • Loyalty and dedication: ISFJs are extremely loyal to their friends, family, and colleagues. They have a strong sense of duty and are committed to supporting those they care about. They are willing to go above and beyond to help others, and their dedication is unwavering.


Some potential weaknesses of ISFJs include:

  • Rigidity and inflexibility: ISFJs may be too attached to established traditions and routines due to their dominant Si, making it difficult for them to adapt to new situations and places. They may also be resistant to change, leading to missed opportunities for growth and development.
  • Avoidance of Emotional Vulnerability: ISFJs have a tendency to repress their feelings, particularly negative ones. Because they prioritize the feelings and needs of others due to their Fe, ISFJs may neglect their own emotional well-being and suppress their own emotions. This can lead to them feeling overwhelmed or resentful, and may cause them to withdraw from social situations or become passive-aggressive in their interactions with others.
  • Over Reliance on past experiences: While ISFJs’ strong sense of personal history can be an asset, it can also lead to over-reliance on past experiences and a reluctance to try new things. They may struggle with taking risks and stepping outside of their comfort zone.  
  • Tendency to be overly self-critical: ISFJs have high personal standards and may be overly critical of themselves when they fail to meet their own expectations. This can lead to feelings of inadequacy and self-doubt.

Career choice

ISFJs are known for their strong work ethic, attention to detail, and deep sense of responsibility. They prefer careers that allow them to make a tangible difference in the lives of others, and that align with their values and beliefs. Here are some career options that may be a good fit for ISFJs:

  • Healthcare professionals: ISFJs are well-suited for careers in healthcare due to their compassionate and caring nature. They may excel as nurses, medical assistants, or social workers.
  • Teachers or educational administrators: ISFJs’ desire to help others and make a positive impact can lead them to careers in education. They may excel as teachers or administrators who create a supportive learning environment for their students.
  • Accountants or bookkeepers: While not typically associated with artistic expression, ISFJs’ attention to detail and organizational skills can make them well-suited for careers in finance. They may excel as accountants, bookkeepers, or financial analysts.
  • Administrative assistants: ISFJs are often very organized and enjoy helping others, making them well-suited for administrative roles. They may excel as executive assistants, office managers, or in similar positions.
  • Service industry roles: ISFJs enjoy careers that allow them to use their attention to detail and sensory awareness. They may excel as chefs, bartenders, or in customer service roles where they can provide a high level of personal attention and care to their customers.

ISFJs may struggle in careers that require them to take risks or make quick decisions without much time for deliberation. They may also find careers that require extensive public speaking or networking to be challenging, as they prefer to work behind the scenes and avoid the spotlight.


ISFJs in the workplace are highly valued for their dependability, frugality, and attention to detail. They are willing to work long hours and are willing to take on thankless tasks that others may overlook. However, they may become resentful if their contributions and economies are taken for granted, causing them to experience feelings of bottled-up emotion that can cause undeserved suffering. 

ISFJs are highly organized and have a strong desire to see rules and regulations enforced. They have a strong sense of morality and tend to be preoccupied with ensuring that everyone is treated fairly and with respect. ISFJs are keenly aware of the social order and hierarchy and believe in upholding custom and convention. They have a deep respect for authority and are often attracted to executive positions. 

While they may not actively seek out leadership positions, their interpersonal skills and work ethic lend themselves well to managing others in a warm and approachable manner. They create an environment where their employees feel valued and appreciated for their hard work. Moreover, as team members, they enjoy close-knit and supportive teams, where they can express their altruistic spirit. They are highly cooperative and work well with others to implement their goals. 


ISFJs are devoted to their partners and families, and are often excellent homemakers. With a strong sense of duty, they take great pride in creating a welcoming and attractive home. They manage household tasks very well, such as providing nourishing meals, shopping, minor repairs, and maintaining a daily routine of cleanliness, tidiness, and order. Female ISFJs in particular, often display their talent for creating a traditional and inviting home interior. 

ISFJs are very devoted and loyal in their relationships. They take their commitments seriously and are willing to put in the effort required to maintain a healthy and loving partnership. ISFJs may struggle with expressing their emotions verbally and often show their affection through acts of service, like preparing a meal for their partner, doing their share of chores or anything that would make their partner’s life more comfortable. They are highly attentive to their partner’s needs, owing to their auxiliary Fe, and are willing to make all kinds of sacrifices to support them. However, the tendency to put their partner’s needs before their own can sometimes lead to issues in the relationship, and they may express their suppressed frustration in the form of resentment or stubbornness.

ISFJs parents are attentive to their children’s emotional and physical needs, and strive to create a stable and supportive home environment. They also tend to be very traditional in their approach to parenting. They often have strong values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, and they pass these values on to their children. ISFJs may be strict when it comes to discipline, but they do so out of a desire to instill in them a sense of responsibility and respect for authority.

In conclusion, the ISFJ personality type embodies a unique set of traits that make them invaluable members of any team or community. With their exceptional organizational skills and attention to detail, they possess a rare ability to manage complex situations with ease and grace. Their innate sense of compassion and desire to provide for others makes them natural caregivers, always going above and beyond to ensure everyone’s needs are met. By continuing to develop their strengths and embrace their natural tendencies, individuals with the ISFJ personality type can achieve great success and make a profound impact in the world.

Champion (ENFP) – Type Description

ENFP is one of the 16 personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), characterized by extraversion, intuition, feeling and perception. ENFPs, also known as “champions”, are enthusiastic, outgoing and spontaneous individuals. They are considered the most optimistic of all personality types, who always tend to see the best in people. They thrive on making connections with others, and are very good at understanding their motivations. 

ENFPs base their self-image on being seen as empathic, benevolent, and authentic, and are driven by intuition rather than concentrated willpower. Their lives often consist of a succession of projects, and they are stimulated by difficulties, finding themselves most ingenious in solving them. They are tireless when it comes to things that interest them, but may find it difficult to get other things done. Since ENFPs are more focused on “what could be” than “what is”, they often end up losing interest once they have accomplished a part of their vision. 

Cognitive Functions of ENFPs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ENFP personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ENFPs, 

Dominant Ne: Extraverted Intuition (Ne) allows an individual to come up with new ideas and  possibilities, and see connections between seemingly unrelated things. It gives people the ability to see beyond the present, with a clear vision of what could be. People with a dominant Ne have a strong intuition for spotting trends and future developments, often before others have even recognized them.

Due to their dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne), ENFPs tend to be more attracted to new possibilities and challenges than what is already verified and known, which makes them great problem solvers, innovators and visionaries. However, their dominant Ne also means that they change their mind frequently. As soon as a “possibility” becomes a “fact”, the intuitive part of their personality loses interest and starts exploring other ideas. This is because they are far more captivated by the possibilities of “what could be” than by the realities of “what is”. Furthermore, since they are so enthusiastic about their ideas, they often share them with others before they have had the opportunity to critically analyze them, which may make ENFPs come across as unrealistic, immature, and childish. 

Auxiliary Fi: Introverted Feeling (Fi) helps individuals make decisions based on personal values, beliefs, and emotions. Healthy Fi users are in touch with their own emotions and have a strong sense of personal ethics and morality. An auxiliary Introverted Feeling (Fi) function enables individuals to be responsible for the decisions they make and resolve issues that cannot be dealt with through their dominant function. 

ENFPs’ dominant Ne allows them to scan the environment and quickly absorb information. However, the constant influx of information can sometimes make it difficult for them to focus on what’s important. They rely on their auxiliary Fi to prioritize ideas based on their personal values. Moreover, ENFPs are forward-thinking and can see how changing a situation can improve people’s lives, but they may struggle to determine the best course of action to make their vision a reality. They use their Fi to set their priorities and determine their agenda. This allows them to focus on the ideas that are most important to them and make choices that align with their beliefs and values.


Like all personality types, ENFPs have their own unique set of strengths, some of which include:

  • Imaginative and curious: ENFPs have a rich inner world and a vivid imagination, thanks to their Ne. They are constantly curious and open to new experiences, ideas, and perspectives. Their imaginative nature allows them to think outside the box and come up with creative solutions to problems.
  • Natural cheerleaders: ENFPs have a natural talent for uplifting and motivating others. They are natural-born cheerleaders who can inspire and encourage those around them with their optimism, enthusiasm, and support. They have a knack for boosting the morale of their peers and colleagues, helping them feel empowered and motivated to achieve their goals.
  • Empathetic: ENFPs are people’s people. They are able to put themselves in other people’s shoes and understand their perspectives. Their Ne helps them to pick up on subtle emotional cues of others and read between the lines. This makes them empathetic listeners as well as excellent negotiators, who are able to find common ground with different parties.
  • Light-hearted and fun: ENFPs are known for their ability to bring levity and humor to any situation. They have a light-hearted and playful approach to life, which can help create a positive and enjoyable atmosphere in their interactions with others.


ENFPs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance and effectiveness in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Difficulty with follow-through and organization: ENFPs can struggle with follow-through and organization, as they are more focused on exploring new possibilities rather than maintaining structure and routine. ENFPs can easily become distracted by their own ideas or those of others, and can lose track of the task at hand. 
  • Overly Idealistic: ENFPs tend to be overly idealistic and can often overestimate their own abilities and the abilities of others. They have a natural trust in the environment, which can cause them to ignore sensory data that might signal danger (due to their weak Sensing function), or take risks that others might avoid. They also become easily discouraged when faced with a reality that does not live up to their expectations. 
  • Difficulty with decision-making and structure: ENFPs can have a hard time making decisions, as driven by their dominant Ne, they want to consider all options and perspectives before making a choice. This can lead to indecision, poor time management, and difficulty maintaining boundaries and structure. 
  • Poor Attention to Detail: ENFPs are full of ideas, owing to their dominant Ne, and they love working towards making those ideas a reality. However, due to Sensing being their weaker function, ENFPs often overlook details and struggle to pay attention to the finer points of a task, which may result in poor execution of their plans if not thought through properly.

Career choice

ENFPs are extremely enthusiastic individuals and can excel in any career they are interested in. The most suitable ones are mentioned below.

  • Sales or marketing: ENFPs’ dominant Ne allows them to think creatively, anticipate customer needs and tailor their pitch accordingly, which makes them great at sales and marketing. They are charismatic, persuasive and have great communication skills which help in building relationships with customers and closing deals. 
  • Entrepreneurship or business: ENFPs are well-suited for careers in entrepreneurship, as they have a natural enthusiasm for exploring new possibilities, and are able to think creatively and identify gaps in the market.
  • Counseling or coaching: ENFPs are often drawn to counseling, as they enjoy the challenge of understanding each person’s unique problem and exploring potential solutions while helping them communicate their thoughts and feelings. 
  • Human resources: ENFPs are able to connect with others and understand their needs and motivations, thanks to their Ne, which makes them well-suited for careers in human resources. Their auxiliary Fi allows them to evaluate ideas and actions in terms of their moral values and beliefs, which can help them to bring authenticity and integrity to their work in HR.

ENFPs require a career that allows them to satisfy their Ne by continuously working on new ideas and projects. Further examples of such careers could include: writing, where each book presents a different topic to explore; politics, with progression of campaigns for higher positions; education, where it would be about the renewed challenge of teaching a different class; and psychiatry, where it would be about the intricate mystery of each patient’s mind. If ENFPs feel blocked in their pursuits they may become bored and discontent in their career. 


ENFPs are often well-liked in the workplace and make great team members. Due to their extraverted nature, they have a natural tendency to be outgoing and sociable, which can help them build positive relationships with colleagues and create an inclusive work environment. They possess the ability to pick on the needs and intentions of others, and this “client-centered” approach can be particularly useful in situations such as conferences and interviews, where the ability to connect with the interviewees or colleagues can lead to more effective communication and a deeper understanding of their motivations. 

ENFPs are authentic in their work approach, since their auxiliary Fi serves as their moral compass, helping them take on projects that align with their own beliefs and values. For this reason, ENFPs may have difficulty picking up on ideas and projects initiated by others. To fully lend their energy and interest to a project, it must align with their moral values, allowing them to consider that idea their own.

Moreover, ENFPs are known for their enthusiasm for new ideas and projects, which makes them highly productive employees. But this enthusiasm can also lead to inattention to time and energy limitations. They may become so absorbed in their current project that they neglect their needs to take breaks for rest, which ultimately leads to burnout. However, as soon as ENFPs see their idea turning into a factual reality, they often lose interest in the rest of the project, getting distracted by newer possibilities. They tend to rely on others to handle the follow-through of a project and may not stick with a situation long enough to see the final results.


In relationships, ENFPs are often warm and affectionate, and they enjoy expressing their feelings to their partners. They are gentle, caring, and understanding, and tend to be spontaneous, which can often lead to pleasant surprises for their partners. Due to their dominant Ne, they tend to seek new and exciting experiences, which brings excitement and adventure to relationships.  With their strong sense of curiosity, they are always excited to learn about their partners and explore new things together.

However, ENFPs can struggle with organization in relationships, as they are more focused on exploring new possibilities, rather than maintaining structure and routine. They may not prioritize practical matters such as maintaining the household, having life insurance, or keeping a steady cash flow, and be inconsistent in terms of their spending habits, sometimes indulging in luxuries while neglecting necessities. 

ENFPs are known to be devoted parents, giving their children a variety of stimulating experiences, but may be unpredictable in their parenting style. They may shift between being a friend to their child to a stern authority figure. They may have strong opinions on discipline, but may not be willing to enforce them to maintain a good relationship with their children. They tend to leave it to their partner to follow through with discipline. 

In conclusion, ENFPs are charismatic, outgoing, and optimistic individuals, who are passionate about their interests. They are full of ideas about different topics and are often seen as the life of the party. They are versatile, easy to get along with, and have a keen eye on the future. They possess strong initiative and a creative impulse, and can achieve anything they set their minds to. With their wisdom-like intuition, enthusiasm, and desire to make a difference, ENFPs are capable of achieving great things while embracing life to the fullest and inspiring others to do the same. 

Debater (ENTP) – Type Description

ENTP is one of the 16 personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), characterized by extraversion, intuition, thinking and perceiving. ENTPs, also known as the “debaters” or “inventors,” are known for their quick wit, clever ideas, and love of a good argument. One of the most striking things about ENTPs is their ability to think on their feet. They are quick to come up with new ideas, are not afraid to take risks, and are always eager to explore new possibilities. These qualities make them natural inventors, scientists, trouble-shooters, and entrepreneurs. 

ENTPs can be impulsive and may have trouble committing to one idea, but it also makes them very adaptable and able to pivot quickly when necessary. ENTPs are very clever and are often able to think their way out of tricky situations and persuade others to see things from their point of view. They have a tendency to value reason and intellect over emotions and feelings, and they enjoy being around those who can keep up with their fast-paced thinking and conversation. 

Cognitive Functions of ENTPs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ENTP personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ENTPs, 

Dominant Ne: Extraverted Intuition (Ne) allows an individual to come up with new ideas and  possibilities, and see connections between seemingly unrelated things. It gives people the ability to see beyond the present, with a clear vision of what could be. People with a dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) have a strong intuition for spotting trends and future developments, often before others have even recognized them.

Due to their dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne), ENTPs tend to be more attracted to new possibilities and challenges than what is already verified and known, which makes them great problem solvers, innovators and visionaries. They use their Ne to think on their feet and come up with new ideas on the spot. However, they sometimes can get overstimulated or distracted by too many new ideas and need to learn to balance their energy by using their auxiliary function of Introverted Thinking (Ti).

Auxiliary Ti: Introverted Thinking (Ti) allows individuals to analyze their thoughts in a logical and systematic way. This function helps people critically evaluate the information and gain leverage through logical frameworks.

ENTPs use their auxiliary Introverted Thinking (Ti) to be more self-reflective, to understand their own thought processes and to identify any inconsistencies in their own reasoning. They also use Ti to be more efficient in decision making and to identify priorities and best course of actions. As they learn to apply Ti to their own actions, they become more self-disciplined and recognize their responsibility to others in the larger scheme of things.

Due to ENTPs emphasis on these dominant and auxiliary functions, their Sensing and Feeling functions are less developed. This can lead to weaknesses such as difficulty being present in the moment and paying attention to details (Sensing), as well as understanding and expressing emotions, empathizing with others, and understanding the impact of their decisions on others (Feeling).

Strengths of ENTPs 

ENTPs possess many strengths, some of which include:

  • Adventurous and innovative: ENTPs are always on the lookout for new adventures, be it in their personal or professional lives. Due to their dominant Ne, their minds are always exploring innovative ideas, seeing multiple perspectives in every situation. This makes them natural explorers, always ready to delve into the unknown and embrace change.
  • Agents of progress: ENTPs are natural troubleshooters and agents of progress. Their dominant Ne allows them to explore abstract possibilities and their auxiliary Ti critically evaluates the plan before the ENTP rushes into a situation. This Ne-Ti combination makes them great at solving problems and making good judgments.
  • Leadership and persuasion: ENTPs are able to persuade others to see things from their point of view, and are natural leaders. As mentioned before, they use their Ne-Ti to make sound judgments, leading to a high level of confidence in the conclusions they arrive at. This confidence in their ideas allows them to communicate clearly and effectively, making them skilled speakers. They possess the ability to argue their point of view persuasively or even play devil’s advocate and argue on both sides just for the fun of it.
  • Entrepreneurial spirit: ENTPs are naturally good at identifying business opportunities due to their ability to think outside the box. Thanks to their dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne), they are good at thinking on their feet, which allows them to approach challenges with a creative and bold mindset.

Weaknesses of ENTPs

ENTPs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance and effectiveness in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Lack of focus and practicality: ENTPs have a tendency to get easily distracted by new and exciting ideas, making it difficult for them to commit to a single plan. Due to their dominant Ne, their minds are always active, thinking of new possibilities, but this can make it challenging for them to stick with one project or plan. ENTPs also have a natural tendency to be overly hopeful and optimistic about their ideas, which can lead them to miscalculate the outcomes and make impractical plans (which can also be explained by their weaker Sensing functions which are responsible for attention to details).
  • Impulsivity: ENTPs rely on their ability to solve problems as they arise, rather than carefully creating a detailed blueprint in advance. When they resist the “advice” from their auxiliary Ti, they feel confident with just a rough draft and proceed into action. This impulsive behavior can lead them to neglect preparing adequately for a given task. 
  • Resistance to rules and routine tasks: ENTPs may struggle with tasks that are repetitive or require a lot of attention to detail. With their dominant Ne and corresponding weaker Sensing functions (aka attention to details) they find it difficult for them to follow set protocols and procedures. They value their freedom and autonomy, and may be resistant to rules and regulations that they see as restrictive.

ENTPs & career choice

It is important for ENTPs to choose a career that aligns with their interests and allows them to use their strengths and skills. Some suitable careers for ENTPs include the following.

  • Entrepreneurship and business: ENTPs, with their love for exploring new ideas and possibilities, are well-suited for entrepreneurship. Their Ne allows them to dream big and come up with new entrepreneurial ideas, and their Ti helps them make effective business plans. These skills are crucial for starting and running a successful business. Their adaptability allows them to pivot their strategies according to changing market conditions and stay ahead of the competition. 
  • Sales and marketing: ENTPs would make great salespeople due to their dominant Ne, which allows them to think creatively, anticipate customer needs and tailor their pitch accordingly. They are charismatic, persuasive and have great communication skills which help in building relationships with customers and closing deals. 
  • Law: As lawyers, ENTPs thrive in the courtroom with their ability to debate and explore different perspectives. Their natural inclination for abstract thinking, provided by their dominant Ne, allows them to anticipate opposing viewpoints in court. This, paired with their auxiliary Ti, enables them to critically evaluate their own arguments, spot any weaknesses and come up with counterpoints beforehand, making them formidable legal opponents.
  • Science: ENTPs are very well-suited for careers in science. Their minds are always at work, identifying problems around them, coming up with new unconventional ideas to solve them in one way or another. 

Careers that involve a lot of stability, predictability, and adherence to set rules and procedures may not be a good fit for ENTPs. They value their freedom and independence, and may find it challenging to work within a highly structured or bureaucratic environment. They may also struggle with jobs that require a high degree of conformity, such as certain government jobs, or jobs in industries like finance or accounting which demand a high degree of attention to detail.

ENTPs in the workplace

ENTPs in the workplace are known for their curiosity and open mindedness. This curiosity is contagious and can inspire others, who find themselves admiring the ENTPs’ insatiable hunger for knowledge. ENTPs are not satisfied with doing things the way they have always been done, they are always on the lookout for a better way, new projects, new activities, and new procedures, owing to their dominant Ne.

ENTPs also make great employers and managers due to their imaginative and enterprising nature. In leadership positions, they are intellectually competitive and want a team that can keep up with them. They encourage independence among their team members, valuing different perspectives and ideas. However, they also use their Ti to critically evaluate and analyze all ideas before coming to a decision, and with the help of their Ne, they are able to assess which plan would be the most effective.

ENTPs in their relationships

When it comes to relationships, ENTPs are often outgoing, adventurous, and full of energy. They are typically in good humor and enjoy making others laugh. They are known for their spontaneity and love for trying new things. Being with them is never boring as they are always looking for new experiences. They enjoy surprising their partner with unexpected gestures and activities which can make for an exciting and dynamic relationship. They are also open-minded and accepting of their partner’s interests and passions.

ENTPs may struggle with overindulging in their Ti function, leading to a lack of emotional understanding and connection with their partner. They sometimes rely too heavily on logical solutions and dismiss the importance of emotions and feelings in relationships, causing the other person to feel unsupported and unvalued. To improve, ENTPs should focus on developing their Feeling function, becoming more emotionally capable, listening more, showing appreciation and being willing to be vulnerable and share emotions in the relationship.

As parents, ENTPs are focused on raising independent and self-reliant children. They want to provide their kids with new experiences and opportunities, but also encourage them to explore and experience life on their own.

In conclusion, ENTPs are innovative and dynamic individuals who are always on the lookout for new ideas and opportunities. They are natural problem-solvers and enjoy the thrill of overcoming challenges. They are confident risk takers, open-minded, and value the input of others. Despite their occasional need for independence, ENTPs are highly social creatures and enjoy interacting with others. They are not afraid to challenge the status quo and strive to make the world a better place.

Architect (INTP) – Type Description

INTP is one of the 16 Myers & Briggs personality types, characterized by introversion, intuition, thinking, and perception. INTPs, also known as “architects”, are known for their intellectual curiosity, open-mindedness, and willingness to explore different possibilities. They are quiet and private individuals, who rely on principles and logical reasoning to understand their thoughts and ideas, and pursue knowledge. They enjoy engaging in intellectual conversations and may even get into arguments with others just for the sake of it.

INTPs are often perfectionists and are driven by the desire for personal competence. They have an innate ability to break down complex situations and come up with practical and innovative solutions with precision and accuracy. They have an optimistic outlook and a resourceful attitude, and are able to turn their ideas into reality with their problem-solving skills. However, sometimes their ideas can be so complex that they may have trouble communicating them to others. INTPs are drawn to logical systems and are often interested in science, mathematics, and technology.

Cognitive Functions of INTPs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of INTP personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For INTPs, 

Dominant Ti: An Introverted Thinking (Ti) function allows individuals to analyze and process the world around them internally through logical and objective thinking. These individuals use their naturally technical mind to identify the inner workings and mechanics of systems. Ti allows this type to disregard feeling and sensation to fully immerse in the governing logical frameworks and devise a way to gain leverage based on this understanding. They enjoy devising ingenious solutions to interesting & challenging problems.

Auxiliary Ne: Extraverted Intuition (Ne) allows an individual to generate new ideas, explore possibilities, and see connections between seemingly unrelated things. This function is always looking for ways to bring new elements into a situation, to create new patterns, to relate one thing to another in a new way. 

For introverted thinkers to be productive, they must have a strong auxiliary cognitive function to provide perception and support for their thinking. Auxiliary Ne allows INTPs to consider possibilities and potential outcomes that may not have been immediately apparent through logical thinking alone. INTPs first use their dominant function, Introverted Thinking (Ti), to understand the logical structure of a situation. Then, they use their auxiliary function, Extraverted Intuition (Ne), to consider the potential impacts and outcomes of that situation in the real world, which makes them appear more rational and logical.


Like all personality types, INFPs have a combination of strengths and weaknesses. Some of strengths of INTPs include:

  • Creative problem-solving: INTPs are logical and analytical thinkers, which makes them great problem-solvers. Their dominant Ti helps them methodically assess a situation and come up with creative solutions to problems. They have an instinctive feel for what will work and what won’t, hence, they are often good at anticipating potential problems and being prepared for them.
  • Independence and perseverance: INTPs prefer to work independently and don’t need much supervision. Their strong thinking function equips them with mental resources required for completing tasks without being micromanaged. INTPs are also very dedicated and focused, able to concentrate better than most types because they limit their search to only what is relevant to the issue at hand.
  • Intellectual insights: INTPs are probably the most intellectually profound of all the types. Their dominant Ti gives them intellectual curiosity and creative brilliance, while their auxiliary Ne brings a deeper insight and understanding of situations that cannot be reached by thinking alone. With both of these qualities combined, INTPs are able to think in extremely complex ways.
  • Objectivity: INTPs are committed to seeking truth and objectivity. They strive to eliminate errors and inconsistencies, without being swayed by other people’s ideas. This allows for some truly profound contribution in systems and theories that can be felt a long time after their lifetimes.


INTPs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Neglecting routine and mundane tasks: Just like other Ne-dominant types, INTPs are weak with sensory and practical details,being so absorbed in their thoughts and ideas that they neglect routine matters such as paying bills, meeting deadlines etc. This can also result in them not conforming to basic societal or workplace expectations which they may think as trivial or boring.
  • Difficulty with reading and using emotions: INTPs may struggle with understanding and expressing their emotions, as well as of others, mainly due to Feeling being their inferior function. They also avoid engaging in small talk and may come across as disinterested or aloof. This can make them appear unapproachable in social situations, and they may have trouble building and maintaining relationships, both personally and professionally. 
  • Perfectionism: INTPs’ perfectionism can lead to high standards and a drive for excellence, but it can also hold them back and prevent them from taking action. Their Ti sometimes pushes them to over-analyze every possible solution while trying to find the perfect one. They become obsessed with getting everything “just right”, and this significantly hinders progress in their endeavors
  • Intellectual Pride: INTPs base their self-image on being ingenious, autonomous, and resolute. However, their pride in their own ingenuity can sometimes generate hostility and defensive responses from others. They may also be a bit snobbish at times, showing impatience with others who are less endowed with intellectual ability or less driven.

Career choice

It is important for INTPs to choose a career that aligns with their interests and allows them to use their strengths and skills. They may also benefit from careers that allow them to work independently and have the freedom to think creatively and come up with new solutions to problems.

  • Scientists and engineers: INTPs may enjoy careers in scientific research, where they can use their logical thinking skills to understand complex systems and processes. They may also use their creativity and ability to generate new ideas, owing to their auxiliary Ne, to come up with innovative hypotheses and projects. INTPs are naturally drawn to technology, so a career in innovative fields like computer engineering is a great fit too. 
  • System Architects and designers: INTPs are interested in understanding the patterns and structures of systems in relation to their immediate context. Their Ti helps them piece individual pieces together to envision how a complex system would work, which may lead them to careers related to architecture or design.
  • Musicians:  INTPs do not restrict their analytical thinking and intuitive skills to science and engineering fields only; they also make excellent musicians. Many INTP musicians say that they can actually “hear” the music in their mind before they have even composed a song. They may use their highly developed analytical and intuitive skills to identify the elements of a song that would make it effective, and then figure out ways to improve or enhance those elements. 
  • Entrepreneurs and business managers: INTPs have a passion for ideas and can excel in a business career by leveraging their analytical instincts and innovative spirit. Their intuition, coupled with their ambition, can drive them to success in the business world.

Some careers that may not be the best fit for INTPs include those that involve a lot of social interaction, public speaking, and emotional intelligence, as they tend to be more logical, reserved and introverted. Some examples include sales, customer service, marketing, and human resources.


INTPs approach relationships in a rational and calm manner. They value independence in their relationships, and appreciate when their partner gives them the space they need to pursue their own interests and goals and would be more than happy to do the same for their partners. 

INTPs enjoy engaging in intellectual and meaningful conversations with their partner, but may struggle with understanding and expressing emotional needs. They are even-tempered and easy to get along with, but have a tendency to be preoccupied with their own ideas, leading them to forget important dates or events in their relationships, which can become a source of conflict. With maturity and self-awareness, INTPs can learn to balance their logical and emotional sides in their relationships, and act with consideration while showing emotional needs and appreciation more skillfully.

As parents, INTPs do not impose their own expectations on their children, and treat each child as a rational individual with their own rights and privileges. They encourage their children to take responsibility for their own lives and to make their own decisions. 

In conclusion, INTPs are individuals who are not just curious, but are driven to uncover the wisdom of the world and share it with others. They possess a unique blend of analytical and logical thinking paired with an innate drive to uncover the deeper truths and principles of the world around them. Independent and self-motivated, INTPs are driven to push beyond the surface level of understanding, bring next-level performance and innovation to the workplace or even mankind with their ingenuity!

Mastermind (INTJ) – Type Description

INTJ is one of the 16 personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). INTJs, also known as “Masterminds,” are intellectual and inventive individuals who are known for their rational and strategic thinking. They are driven by a strong desire to understand and analyze the world around them and are often able to see benefits and flaws in different situations that others might miss. They are independent in their approach to problem solving, and are curious, scientific, and research oriented. 

INTJs are skilled at creating logical, structured plans in order to achieve their goals. They have a clear understanding of the big picture and are able to anticipate potential contingencies in a project. When given a task, INTJs will quickly begin formulating their strategies, prioritizing their actions, or creating flow charts in order to efficiently use their time and resources. They are able to see the sequential steps needed to complete a project and are adept at ensuring that all necessary measures are taken to keep the project on track. However, they can also be perceived as stubborn or aloof by others, as they can be single-minded in their pursuit of their goals and may not always fully consider the feelings or perspectives of those around them.

Cognitive Functions of INTJs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of INTJ personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For INTJs, 

Dominant Ni: People with a dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) tend to be highly intuitive and imaginative. Ni gives people the ability to see patterns and connections that others may not. Those who have a dominant Ni have a strong sense of the future, and are often able to make seemingly sudden, intuitive leaps in their thinking. 

INTJs use their dominant Ni to interpret and synthesize information, to develop a big-picture view, and to make decisions based on their internal understanding of the world. They also use their Ni to make accurate predictions and to uncover hidden patterns and meanings in data. Their Ni can be used to delve deeply into topics of interest, to find creative solutions to problems, and to recognize the potential implications of their decisions. INTJs validate their intuitions using rational criteria such as principles, laws, and organizational structures.

Auxiliary Te: Extraverted Thinking (Te) allows an individual to analyze information objectively. It is oriented towards the external world and involves making decisions, organizing, and structuring the environment. It is focused on the tangible, on facts, and on the practical aspects of life. People who rely heavily on Te tend to be efficient, analytical, and decisive.

In INTJs, their Te helps them test their intuitions against logical ideas and principles. Te brings structure to their inner world and helps them decide what to do under different circumstances. Because INTJs use Te to deal with the outside world, they have a very scientific, and often skeptical approach towards reality.

While Ni allows INTJs to understand patterns and connections, Te helps them to analyze and organize the data they gather in a logical, efficient manner. This combination allows INTJs to process information quickly and to come up with creative, innovative solutions to problems. The Ni-Te combination helps INTJs to be strategic and analytical thinkers who are able to see the potential outcomes of different actions and make logical, well-informed decisions.


Like all personality types, INTJs have a combination of strengths and weaknesses. Some of strengths of INTJs include: 

  • Strategic thinking: INTJs are known for their ability to think strategically and see the big picture. Their dominant Ni allows them to gather information and analyze it to form a comprehensive understanding of a situation or problem. 
  • Independent and self-motivated: INTJs prefer to work independently and have a strong sense of self-motivation. They are able to set their own goals and devise their own plans to achieve them, as they don’t depend on others to guide or motivate them.
  • Analytical and logical problem-solving: INTJs are skilled at analyzing complex problems and finding logical solutions. Their auxiliary Te allows them to process information in a systematic way and make objective, unbiased decisions.
  • Leadership: Although unimpressed by degrees, titles and credentials of others, INTJs are known for their natural leadership abilities and their tendency to take charge in situations where they feel they can make a positive difference. The combination of Ni-Te gives them the ability to remain level-headed under pressure. They trust their own ability to analyze and interpret information, which gives them the confidence to make difficult decisions when needed.
  • Efficiency and productivity: INTJs are very efficient in their work and are able to accomplish a lot in a short amount of time. Their auxiliary Te helps them to prioritize and focus on the most important tasks and make good use of their time.


Like all personality types, INTJs have their own set of weaknesses, some of which are:

  • Difficulty with social skills: INTJs may struggle with picking up on social cues or may have trouble adapting to changing social dynamics. Their auxiliary function, Te, can make them focus on facts and logic, rather than emotions and personal connections. Moreover, they tend to prioritize their inner world, due to their Ni, and may neglect the development of their social skills. 
  • Being overly critical: INTJs may be perceived as dogmatic and difficult to satisfy due to their tendency to point out the logical limitations of others’ ideas. They enjoy engaging in theoretical discussions and are comfortable considering multiple paradigms, but their use of Te may lead them to be overly critical and to consistently highlight the flaws in others’ ideas. This can make them seem impossible to satisfy and may negatively impact their relationships with others.
  • Difficulty with delegation: Since INTJs can often be overly critical of others, they struggle with delegating tasks to others, as they may feel that they can do things better themselves. This can lead to a tendency to micromanage. 
  • Tendency to be impatient: INTJs may come across as impatient or dismissive when communicating with others, as they may be unwilling to repeat themselves or may cut others off when they feel that a conversation is unnecessary. Their desire to find alternate viewpoints in order to understand something (due to their Ni-Te combination) may be misinterpreted as disagreement or negativity, leading others to believe that the INTJ is indifferent or critical towards them.

Career choice

INTJs are natural problem solvers who thrive in fast-paced positions. Some careers that may be well-suited for INTJs include:

  • Scientists and engineers: INTJs are highly interested in scientific fields, and often go on to make great inventions and discoveries. Their Ni contributes to the innovation required in science and engineering, and their Te helps them bring structure and objectivity to their thought processes, which can be valuable in such fields.
  • Managers: INTJs’ natural leadership abilities and their tendency to take charge makes them well-suited for management positions. Because of their Ni-Te combination, they possess the ability to develop long-term plans and to identify potential problems before they arise, which can be valuable in this role.
  • Lawyers: INTJs’ ability to develop logical, structured arguments due to their auxiliary Te can be extremely valuable in the field of law.
  • Business owners & entrepreneurs: INTJs also make great business executives as their Ni-Te interact to give them the ability to gauge potential risks and benefits of different actions and investments.

No matter which career an INTJ chooses, they have the ability to make large-scale changes in their chosen field, and are sure to excel and make a positive impact. 

INTJs in the workplace

INTJs in the workplace tend to be self-confident and decisive, with a drive to complete tasks and achieve their goals. They are highly stimulated by difficulties and challenges, and enjoy responding to problems with creative solutions. INTJs are typically hardworking and responsible, and may rise to positions of leadership due to their dedication and steady pursuit of goals. They tend to focus on the positive and prefer to move an organization forward rather than dwelling on past mistakes. 

In terms of their approach to work, INTJs use their auxiliary Te to make cost-effective decisions and look for ways to streamline operations and eliminate waste. They prefer consistency, and are quick to realign systems and processes to achieve their goals more efficiently. They are mostly indifferent to or critical of the ideas of others if they believe that their own ideas are superior. 

However, INTJs may become single-minded at times, focusing so tightly on their own pursuits that they ignore the points of view and wishes of others. They may also prioritize internal and external consistency and efficiency to the point where they overlook the needs and perspectives of others. INTJs may be perceived as unemotional, but this is often due to their serious dedication to the goals of an institution and their desire to achieve those goals efficiently. 

It is important for INTJs to be aware of this tendency and to make an effort to consider the perspectives and needs of others in their decision-making and problem-solving processes. Despite this tendency, INTJs are loyal and dedicated employees who are committed to the success of the system rather than to individual relationships within the system.


INTJs are known to be analytical, independent, and logical individuals, and these traits tend to carry over into their relationships as well. They tend to approach relationships in a thoughtful and rational way and may have high standards for themselves and their partners. Due to their auxiliary Te, they approach the process of choosing a mate in a logical, rational way, basing their decisions on a mental list of physical and intellectual requirements, which may make them seem cold. Being strategic planners, when INTJs do not see a future with someone (with help from their dominant Ni), they do not waste their time on that relationship. They also need a significant amount of alone time to recharge and maintain their connection to their intuitive processes, and may become restless, bored, and emotionally exhausted when there is too much outer stimulation or conflict. 

Although they can be analytical and serious at times, they are also deeply caring and loving, and value meaningful connections with their partners. INTJs in committed relationships make loyal partners who value honesty and practicality. Since they use Te to engage with the outside world, their feelings and emotions may be hard to read at times. They may not be very good at expressing their feelings verbally, but they will likely show their love and affection through actions.

As parents, INTJs are loving and devoted, supporting their children and allowing them to develop their own interests and independence. However, they recognize the importance of setting clear limits and are firm and consistent in enforcing those boundaries.

In conclusion, the INTJ personality type is truly remarkable, characterized by their exceptional intuition, logic, and strategic thinking abilities. Their introverted nature often leads them to keep their emotions private, yet they possess a deep sense of loyalty and honesty that is deeply appreciated by those they hold dear. INTJs are always looking for the most efficient ways to accomplish a task and thrive in positions where they have the autonomy and flexibility to do so. Their ability to think critically and independently makes them valuable assets in any team and they are truly destined to achieve great things. 

Extroversion: The Depth You Have Not Seen

Extroversion, or extraversion, is one of the factors from the Big Five personality model. This personality trait is characterized by an orientation of an individual’s energies and interests towards the outer world of social experiences rather than the inner world of subjective feelings and thoughts.

The trait indicates a continuum of behaviors and attitudes, ranging from low (introverted), neutral (ambivert), to high (extroverted). Extroverts are comparably sociable, outgoing, gregarious, and tend to be openly expressive. On the contrary, introverts are relatively more reserved, conserve their energies, and tend to be internally expressive. 

You can read this article to find out if you are an extrovert or an introvert, or I recommend taking this test to discover more.

1. The six facets of extroversion

According to the International Personality Item Pool, there are six facets in each dimension of the Big Five Personality Traits. The facets of the extroversion domain are:

Friendliness: a quality of being friendly, pleasant, and accommodating in social situations. Friendly people make friends quickly and find it easy to form intimate relationships. They are willing to spend time forming relationshipsandexpanding their network circles. Unfriendly individuals are often perceived as hostile and distant by others. They simply do not reach out to initiate a friendship or expand their connections. 

This trait indicates the general desires of a person to make friends and create friendships. Its meaning leans more towards the formation of close relationships and the tendency to behave hospitable and companionable with others. Friendliness does not relate to how somebody desires  to be in the crowd or group activities.

Friendly behaviors cultivate friendship, form intimate relationships, and broaden one’s social connections

Gregariousness: American Psychological Association describes this facet as the tendency for an individual to be fond of the company of others and want to associate with them in social activities. Gregariousness gives people security, acceptance, companionship, and a sense of belonging. They like the stimulation of being around and interacting with several people. 

However, this stimulation is not favored by non-gregarious people. They would find these events uncomfortable, unpleasant, and even annoying.

Assertiveness: People often do not think of assertiveness as part of extroversion, but it is indeed. Assertiveness indicates characteristics where a person is firm and bold, confident and dominant, decisive and determined, and willing to express themselves externally. They are able to be in charge or take control of group activities.

Depending on different circumstances, this aspect still appears in introverts, yet with lower frequency,compared to extroverts. Introverts can be assertive if they think it is necessary to speak up and behave firmly.

Activity level: Similar to assertiveness, this facet is not commonly thought to be part of extroversionthe common understanding of extroversion does not always refer to this facet. Activity level illustrates the tendency to enjoy having a fast-paced and action-packed lifestyle. Individuals with high levels of this facet are energetic, sprightly and industrious. 

Activity level does not mean searching for new and exciting experiences, but rather the frequency of these activities.. Those who prefer a slower pace tend to scatter their schedule with a lower density of activities. Slow-pace life is more suitable for them because they want to truly enjoy the quality instead of the number of the activities.

A crowded city is often is an ideal environment for those who score high in the facet of activity level

Excitement-seeking: Unlike assertiveness and activity level, this facet aligns well with the common understanding of extroversion. Someone who enjoys seeking excitement gets easily bored. They seek high levels of strong stimulations such as crowded places, cheerful events with loud music and bright lights. Such stimulation can be undesirable, inconvenient, and overwhelming to the more introverted counterparts. who tend to prefer more peaceful and relaxing surroundings.

Cheerfulness: Mood, bright emotions, and positive responses are what this facet  about. Cheerful people have relatively high levels of bright feelings, such as joy or enthusiasm, and positive interactions with others. People who have lower levels of cheerfulness experience fewer delights or optimism and are often perceived as less warm and positive towards others.

The absence of cheerfulness, however, does not necessarily mean there are only negative emotions. These are two different things and they are not correlated to each other. In reality, a majority of people tend to mistake these two matters and wrongly label the absence of cheerfulness as negativity.

Acquiring a thorough insight into the six facets would provide you with a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of extroversion. Looking at an extrovert, you can see more details into his or her behaviors, feelings, and reactions to daily situations.

2. Career recommendations for extroverts

Extroverts enjoy expressing themselves externally and interacting with others to exchange knowledge and make friends. An open, high-energy workplace that encourages verbal exchange and teamwork would be an ideal environment for extroverts. 

Extroverts excel in these jobs:
Lawyer / law consultant
Teacher / lecturer / professor
Sale manager / execution planner
Public relation staff
Nurse / caregiver
Human resources consultant
Tour guide
Project manager
Event planner
MC / radio speaker
Financial specialist
Social media influencer
Community service staff

Open working environments which encourage group-based activities and verbal interactions are ideal for extroverts

3. Career suggestions for introverts

For those who tend to conserve their feelings, energy, and want to gain full control of their work using minimal social interactions, a quiet job would be more suitable. Introverts thrive in a calm and peaceful environment because they can fully concentrate on the process without interruptions and distractions from others.

These suggested jobs are more appropriate for those who score low in extroversion:

Computer programmer
Web developer
Software engineer
Data analyst
Social media marketing
Interior / landscape / graphic designer
Electrical engineering specialist
Scientist / researcher
Interpreter / translator
Writer / content creator / poet
Baker / private chef
Music composer
Self-employed / freelancer

Librarian is one of the ideal jobs for those who enjoy a quiet and peaceful working environment.

4. The challenge of teaching introverts and educational approaches to unlock their potential

For young children with high levels of introversion, group discussions and engagement points in the classroom might not be the best approach to evaluate their actual ability. According to Susan Cain in her best-selling book, some young introverts have to pretend to be extroverts to fit in this education system for the sake of overall grades and other schooling benefits.

4.1 Introverted students tend not to excel in large groups

When introverted students are required to perform in large groups, they are likely to not perform well. Group-based tasks are designed in the way of bringing everyone an equal chance to speak up an opinion, raise a problem, and solve that problem together. 

However, while teachers think they have created an equal opportunity for all students, the reality is often different. Susan Cain pointed out that it often leads to “the most dominant student or the one who cares most about the grades doing all the tasks and taking over”. Introverted students would excel when performing the tasks individually in quiet surroundings , which allows their creativity and thoughtfulness to be maximized.

4.2 Technology can help introverts speak up their ideas

Technology-based platforms can ease the uncomfortable feelings and enable introverts to find their voice in classrooms and group activities. Game-based learning platforms, such as Gimkit and Kahoot, can assist teachers efficiently. For instance, teachers can set the response settings either in anonymous mode or public mode. Anonymous mode means only the teacher gets to know who provides this answer, while public mode allows the entire class to view the provider’s name. 

Introverts can be assertive, bold, and become competitive if they think it is necessary to behave so. As a result, public mode is an excellent opportunity to encourage competitiveness and public recognition. In a world that cannot stop talking, the power of introverts needs to be identified and recognized, especially in the classroom.

5. Teaching strategies to work with extroverted students

5.1 Approach extroverts with a smile to balance out extroversion and introversion

More often, extroverted students are more socially dominant  than their introverted counterparts. This can sometimes become a problem for teachers who want to pay equal attention to all students in the class. Approach young extroverts with a smile and remind him or her to tone it down a bit, so that teachers can have more interactions with other students.  

5.2 Extroverted students enjoy compliments and surprises

If introverted individuals perform better in quiet and calm surroundings, their counterparts enjoy expressing themselves verbally. For example, they are the ones who enjoy making demonstrations or coming up to the front of the classroom. They would feel valued and recognized if teachers compliment them on their initiative and enthusiasm

Cfchildren.org stated that extroverted students like to be surprised. Little surprises in the classroom helps to boost the engagement and excitement of young extroverts. They are more like a “curious cat” that gets nervous towards the surprise, yet excited at the same time. Teachers can leverage morning times to create little surprises as a positive feedback to extroverted students. This is a great way to level up their energy from the beginning of the day and make sure they are readily involved for the lesson. 

Conclusion: The hidden depth of extroversion, and the vital role of educators

The general expression of extroversion, based on popular definitions, might stop at friendliness and excitement seeking. Digging deeper into the six facets of this trait, we now know it also exhibits different dimensions of gregariousness, assertiveness, cheerfulness and activity level. 

Balancing the introversion and extroversion of the students in the classroom are very important. Teachers are encouraged to create multi-purpose activities that fit both types of students. Enhancing the advantage of technology, such as game-based learning platforms, could help teachers to modify and diversify the activities in their classroom to fit different preferences in extroversion. 


The Big Five’s Agreeableness: An In Depth Analysis

Followed by a series of five personality traits from the Big Five personality model, the next personality dimension that we will look into is agreeableness. The word “agree” indicates the likelihood to say yes, to compromise, or to agree to do things, either for oneself or others. Agreeableness measures the tendency to be kind, friendly, cooperative, and supportive. It shows how well one gets along with with others in a group-based environment. 

Highly agreeable people exhibit prosocial forms of behavior. They tend to be more sociable, considerate, tender-minded, and are concerned with the welfare of others. Low scorers tend to be more tough-minded and consider their interests and benefits above others. Sometimes, they are perceived as cynical, domineering, and antagonistic. 

If you want to know how agreeable you are, we recommend you taking the Big Five Personality Test here 

1. The importance of agreeableness: generate positive thoughts and improve mental health

Agreeableness helps to form relationships with  peace and empathy, trust and harmonization. It also helps to minimize the possibility of conflicts and arguments. On an individual scale, agreeableness enables one to harbor and nurture positive thoughts and actions towards others. 

Agreeableness, if placed at the right place and to the right people, attracts positivity and reduce negativity

2. The six facets of agreeableness

According to the International Personality Item Pool, each dimension of the Big Five Personality Traits comprises six facets, or also known as sub traits. The facets of the conscientiousness domain are:

Trust: to believe that someone or something is initially reliable, ethical, and truthful. A trusting individual tends to believe people are well-intentioned and fair. The opposite of being trusting is skeptical. Skeptical individuals tend not to trust others easily without considering other aspects. They tend to base on various other factors, such as their personal experience, facts, or evidence, to trust a person.

Morality: This facet shows the desire to be sincere and candid as opposed in dealing with others. Those who have high levels of morality tend to lean towards being sincere and kind-hearted with others. Those with low levels of morality believe a certain amount of deception or manipulation is needed in communications and relationships. It should be noted that this facet is not about being wrong or right, but rather the degree an individual feels comfortable and pleasant to interact straightforwardly with others.

Cooperation: the willingness to work together with others for a common goal, purpose, or benefit. These people do not like confrontations and tend to compromise. They are often not concerned much with their own needs or interests. Those who tend not to cooperate efficiently with others are more competitive and prioritize their personal needs and benefits. 

According to Dr. Todd Grande, looking at the overall personality trait, cooperation is one of the facets to be associated the most with agreeableness, in terms of the popular conception. For instance, a manager would view an agreeable employee as cooperative toward his or her co-workers. 

According to Dr. Todd Grande, looking at the overall personality trait, cooperation is one of the facets to be associated the most with agreeableness, in terms of the popular conception. For instance, a manager would view an agreeable employee as cooperative toward his or her co-workers. 

Cooperation is considered the most associated facet to the agreeableness trait, especially in working environments,  based on the popular conception

Altruism: the willingness or the desire to help others. Altruistic people find it fulfilling to help others in need. People with low levels of altruism might appear to be helpful towards others, yet the way they see these kind actions is different. Instead of feeling self-fulfilling and joyful when seeing others receive help, they feel inconvenient and look at it as an imposition

Modesty: how willing someone is to claim himself or herself better than others. Modest people do not like making this claim and would rarely consider themselves at a higher position than others. The opposite of modest is arrogant people who act as if they are superior to others.

Sympathy: the ability to understand and resonate with other people’s feelings, particularly that of sad events and sorrows. They are better at identifying, understanding, and connecting with human sufferings. Less sympathetic people lack the ability to recognize and harmonize with sorrowful experiences others are going through. 

Sympathy, in different situations, is considered as justice versus mercy. These two aspects appear as two extremes of a spectrum, where sympathetic individuals tend to lean towards mercy, and less sympathetic ones tend to lean towards the justice side

Sympathy                                                                                                                                                                                 More
Sympathetic people can understand and resonate well with other people’s emotions

3. Suggested careers for highly agreeable people

Highly agreeable people enjoy assisting others and feel more fulfilled when seeing others getting better from the help they receive. An ideal working environment for agreeable people would be a place that allows them to build connections and make positive contributions to the community.

Potential job ideas for agreeable people:

Teacher / lecturer

Nurse / caregiver

NGO / NPO leader

Religious Leader


Community service staff

4. Suggested careers for those with low levels of agreeableness

Those who tend to behave bold, assertive, and tough-minded are not suitable for community-related jobs. They find it hard to place others’ needs and benefits above or emotionally connect to others. These people strive best in environments that focus on the outcomes, welcome counter opinions, and allow their competitiveness to glow.

Potential jobs ideas for low scorers in the agreeableness trait:

Scientist / researcher



Data analyst

Manager / director / association leader


Engineer / mechanic

Author / writing content creator

5.Interesting facts about agreeableness

5.1 Agreeable people shouldn’t be perceived as “less intelligent”

Being too agreeable might lead to some behaviors that could be regarded as less intelligent. Agreeable people place their needs and interests lower than that of others. For this reason, agreeable individuals are perceived as less intelligent, especially in competitive working environments. 

However, how agreeableness is related to intelligence depends on how one chooses to define intelligence. Studies found that agreeableness has zero correlation with objective tests of general intelligence

5.2 People who consider themselves superior to others tend to appear disagreeable

Disagreeable personalities were found in those who perceived themselves at a higher position than others, regardless of their actual ability. This is a study result from Furnham & Buchanan on “Personality, gender, and self-perceived intelligence.” This has significant implications because that means agreeableness is not a fixed trait but can also change fluidly. A person can be more agreeable to a superior but less so with someone in an inferior position.

5.3 Agreeable individuals are more likely to experience Placebo Effect

A study published in 2013 found that there is a higher likelihood for agreeable individuals to undergo the placebo effect. For agreeable participants, they appeared to be more relieved by the placebo effect than other subjects having lower levels of agreeableness. They are less likely to object to the experimenters, more motivated to please them, and more hopeful for positive outcomes. 

5.4 Agreeable individuals are less bothered by grammatical mistakes

Subtle errors in emails might annoy some people, yet this is exceptional for agreeable people. The way personality affects an individual’s reaction to email mistakes was thoroughly discussed in this study. The study results suggested that agreeable people are less sensitive to grammatical errors in emails. It would be wrong to claim that agreeable people have worse grammar than others. They simply do not want to exaggerate the minor mistakes and willing to pass them through.

5.5 Social media is mostly used for positively connecting with others, rather than complaining, by agreeable people

How personality affects the usage of social media platforms has become the subject for a study in 2013. According to the results, agreeable people are more likely to use social media to build and maintain positive connections, rather than a platform for complaints and judgemental opinions. Another interesting study found that agreeable job applicants are less likely to be found badmouthing others on Facebook.

Social Media Sharing and Mobile Phone Networking Concept, Businesswoman is Using Smartphone for Communication Chat While Drinking a Cup of Coffee. Technology Connection for Entertainment Media Network , #Aff, #Concept, #Networking, #Smartphone, #Businesswoman, #Phone #Ad
The primary purpose of social media – building connections – is utilized the most by highly agreeable people

6. Conclusion: agreeableness needs to be utilized efficiently in the right place

Most people fall somewhere between agreeableness and disagreeableness. Depending on the circumstance, agreeableness can be perceived as a strength or weakness. On the overall perspective, agreeableness is a personal positivity that shows trust, cooperation, and support. This is a good thing and has become the keystone ingredient for organizational harmonization. However, in circumstances where assertiveness and counter opinions are more welcomed and focused, it is better to be tough-minded and competitive to protect one’s self-benefits.


Six facets of the agreeableness personality trait, Dr. Todd Grande

Agreeableness has a zero correlation with objective tests of general intelligence, DeYoung, 2011

There is a higher likelihood for agreeable individuals to undergo the placebo effect

Agreeable people are less sensitive to minor writing errors in emails

Social media is used for positive connection purposes by agreeable people

The 5 most popular personality frameworks

The effort to categorize humans according to temperaments and types dates back to thousands of years ago. In modern day, the number of personality-typing frameworks have actually proliferated and come in all forms of complexity, application and scientific validity.

On one side of the spectrum there is the infamous horoscope system which enjoys great popularity, but deemed almost superstitious among the more scientific-minded audience. On the other side is the likes of The Big 5 Model which is frequently quoted as the most scientifically validated framework but doesn’t seem to enjoy the same popularity as horoscope or MBTI.

Today, let’s us take a look at the 5 most popular frameworks and understand a little bit deeper about the origins and their applications.

1. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

The MBTI has an interesting back-story. It was authored by an American mother-daughter duo, Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, in the 1920s. They based their foundation on the work of Carl Jung, the famous Swiss Psychiatrist who developed the Theory of Typology. The two women contributed research and most importantly, created more comprehensive tests and systems of description to improve the applicability of Jung’s esoteric theory. Today the MBTI test is taken over 2 millions times every year.

The MBTI proposes four main ways in which the human mind categorizes and makes sense of information: Sensing, Intuition, Feeling and Thinking, forming the first two dichotomies of Sensing – Intuition and Feeling – Thinking respectively. In short, the more intuitive a person, the more abstract and imaginative are his thoughts. Meanwhile, a person may prefer to either make decisions based on moral values and beauty or logical reasoning instead.

The next dichotomy is Introversion – Extroversion. Introversion is a rather well-known concept heavily popularized in recent years by books such as Quiet: The Power of Introverts by Susan Cain. In the context of MBTI, it characterizes how a person draws his or her energy from. If he is energized by social setting, he is more extroverted. Meanwhile, introverts are drained by social interaction and gain energy from listening to his inner mind.

The final result after taking the test is a combination of 4 letters, resulting in a variation of 16 personality types.

16 mbti types.png
The 16 MBTI Types. Source: EntePhoto: By Ravenclawsome – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=61974268r

The MBTI is most frequently used for career planning, relationships, teamwork, self-understanding and personal growth. It is said that the majority of the Fortune 500 companies use the controversial practice of using MBTI for screening job candidates.

2. Enneagram

According to enneagraminstitute.com, modern enneagram is a synthesis of ancient wisdom traditions dated back as early as 345 AD. So there is no conclusive history about it, but there are several well-known pioneering figures including Armenia-born George Gurdjieff and Bolivia-born Ichazo, who was claimed to be the first person to put together the enneagram system.

Essentially, the Enneagram proposes 9 Higher Qualities or Holy Ideas corresponding to the three Centers of human intelligence, Thinking, Feeling, and Instinct.. Each Holy Idea also has a corresponding Virtue. The Virtues are essential qualities of the heart experienced by human beings when they are abiding in Essence. 

The 9 Main Enneagram types

As a person loses awareness and presence, falling away into the trance of the personality, the loss of awareness of the Holy Idea becomes a person’s Ego-fixation, resulting in his characteristic Passion. While everyone has the capacity to embody all of the Holy Ideas and Virtues, one pair of them is central to the soul’s identity, so the loss if it is felt most acutely, and the person’s ego is most preoccupied with recreating it, although in a futile, self-defeating way.

So the Enneagram is well-known for it’s 9-point star depicting the 9 main types and their corresponding movements. One arrow will show how a type move towards when healthy and the other shows how it most resembles when being unhealthy. Sound complicated? Not yet. One type can also have additional 1 or 2 wings which are secondary characteristics. The wing can only come from the adjacent type. A type also has 3 possible instinctual variants: social, sexual, and self-preservation.


Arrows of integration and disintegration

Source: Evert7h [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)]


If MBTI focuses more on how the mind makes sense of information, the enneagram focuses on the underlying spiritual and emotional motives. There has been research showing correlation between MBTI and Enneagram types, but in general, the later expand significantly the understanding about a person’s typological make-ups. Enneagram is well-suited for self-awareness as well as application in career and relationship consultation.

3. Socionic

Socionics is a theory of how individuals process and select information. At its centre is the information metabolism model of the psyche, called Model A, and a model of interpersonal relations. It incorporates Carl Jung’s work on Psychological Types with Antoni Kępiński’s theory of information metabolism. From its core theories, socionic extends to categorize and predict individuals’ interpersonal, group dynamics, potential career, societal roles and more.



Socionics was developed in the 1970s and ’80s, primarily by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, also known as Aushra Augista. She is an economist, sociologist, and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University’s department of family science. Augusta believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics. 


The socionic test results give you a sociotype denoted by 4 letters, which look remarkably similar to the MBTI results. In fact, many sources agree that you can use your MBTI type as sociotype, just that for introverts, the J and P needs to be reserved. So if your MBTI type is INFP, your sociotype is INFJ and vice versa.

The information dichtomies. Source: Wiki Commons

What makes Socionic distinct from MBTI is the 14 Intertype Relations. Using the Socionic relationship chart, you can quickly deduce the type of relationship that two societypes have. There is a ranking of how ideal a relationship is, from the most ideal (duality) to the less favorable such as Conflicting or Supervision. Ultimately, the description for each Relations shed more light on the nature of the interaction, giving insights to better understand and improve the situation.

Even though Socionic’s uses cover many topics including group interactions, career choice and personal value, its main purpose is still about understanding and describing intertype relationships.

4. Horoscope

The horoscope is also a synthesis of mankind’s tradition to observe the celestial bodies and assign divine meaning to them. Its system encapsulates 12 constellations captured as early as the Babylonian period in 1500 BC and finally set down in Ancient Greece with names similar to what we see today.

The 12 Zodiac signs.  Source: Wiki Commons

On the basic level, there are 12 different signs in the Zodiac, or “circle of animal” corresponding to 12 consecutive periods on the calendar. They belong to 4 main elements: earth, water, air and fire. Each Zodiac sign is supposed to come with a particular set of characteristics and temperaments, which are often derived from the depiction of the sign itself and its element group. For example, the Taurus sign is depicted as a bull so people in this sign are stereotyped as stubborn and loyal. They are also steadfast and sensual because of the earth element.

Diving deeper into the system you will find a myriad of other considerations such as influencing of other signs depending on a person’s relative date of birth, the sun, the moon, governing planets and houses. Interested readers can find out more in detail these aspects in the many online resources available.

The zodiac, even though widely criticised as non-scientific and even a fad, enjoys huge popularity in modern culture. The description is an easy-to-use tool for self-understanding and guidance into career choices and relationship compatibility. Some sources even go as far as having daily or monthly fortune telling for each Zodiac sign.

 5. The Big-Five Personality Traits

The Big-Five personality model refers to the 5 basic traits which was widely used for research and journal of psychologists and scientists. It was first started and streamlined since 1930s by psychologists in an effort to produce more concise trait inventories for the field of personality research.

The five factors may be assessed using a number of measures, including self-report questionnaires. A subject is asked to read a number of descriptions or adjectives and to rate the accuracy with which they describe their own personality on a Likert scale (e.g. 1 – Strongly Disagree to 2 – Strongly Agree).

This is a quick description of the 5 traits under the Big-Five model:
Openness: Enjoy to explore and learn new things, being imaginative and have wide interests
Consciousness: People score high on this are methodical, organized, goal-oriented and reliable
Extraversion: Extraverts gain energy from social interactions, having qualities such as being talkative, outgoing and assertive
Agreeableness: People score high on this scale are more compassionate, coopperative and friendly
Neuroticism: Neurotic indivduals are more prone to negative emotions, often seem tense and moody while people score low on this are more self-assured and stress-resistant

The results of these tests estimate how high or low one is on each trait relative to other people. When many individuals take such tests their scores collectively shed light on issues such as how a particular trait tends to correlate with an outcome, such as success in a particular career.

As we can see, one reason the Big-Five is less popular even though it was claimed and refined to be more scientifically accurate, is because it is a rather new framework still pending ongoing research from the scientific communities. There are no central unifying theories or framework to enable a more in-depth exploration like the other 4 system does.