Extroversion: The Depth You Have Not Seen

Extroversion, or extraversion, is one of the factors from the Big Five personality model. This personality trait is characterized by an orientation of an individual’s energies and interests towards the outer world of social experiences rather than the inner world of subjective feelings and thoughts.

The trait indicates a continuum of behaviors and attitudes, ranging from low (introverted), neutral (ambivert), to high (extroverted). Extroverts are comparably sociable, outgoing, gregarious, and tend to be openly expressive. On the contrary, introverts are relatively more reserved, conserve their energies, and tend to be internally expressive. 

You can read this article to find out if you are an extrovert or an introvert, or I recommend taking this test to discover more.

1. The six facets of extroversion

According to the International Personality Item Pool, there are six facets in each dimension of the Big Five Personality Traits. The facets of the extroversion domain are:

Friendliness: a quality of being friendly, pleasant, and accommodating in social situations. Friendly people make friends quickly and find it easy to form intimate relationships. They are willing to spend time forming relationshipsandexpanding their network circles. Unfriendly individuals are often perceived as hostile and distant by others. They simply do not reach out to initiate a friendship or expand their connections. 

This trait indicates the general desires of a person to make friends and create friendships. Its meaning leans more towards the formation of close relationships and the tendency to behave hospitable and companionable with others. Friendliness does not relate to how somebody desires  to be in the crowd or group activities.

Friendly behaviors cultivate friendship, form intimate relationships, and broaden one’s social connections

Gregariousness: American Psychological Association describes this facet as the tendency for an individual to be fond of the company of others and want to associate with them in social activities. Gregariousness gives people security, acceptance, companionship, and a sense of belonging. They like the stimulation of being around and interacting with several people. 

However, this stimulation is not favored by non-gregarious people. They would find these events uncomfortable, unpleasant, and even annoying.

Assertiveness: People often do not think of assertiveness as part of extroversion, but it is indeed. Assertiveness indicates characteristics where a person is firm and bold, confident and dominant, decisive and determined, and willing to express themselves externally. They are able to be in charge or take control of group activities.

Depending on different circumstances, this aspect still appears in introverts, yet with lower frequency,compared to extroverts. Introverts can be assertive if they think it is necessary to speak up and behave firmly.

Activity level: Similar to assertiveness, this facet is not commonly thought to be part of extroversionthe common understanding of extroversion does not always refer to this facet. Activity level illustrates the tendency to enjoy having a fast-paced and action-packed lifestyle. Individuals with high levels of this facet are energetic, sprightly and industrious. 

Activity level does not mean searching for new and exciting experiences, but rather the frequency of these activities.. Those who prefer a slower pace tend to scatter their schedule with a lower density of activities. Slow-pace life is more suitable for them because they want to truly enjoy the quality instead of the number of the activities.

A crowded city is often is an ideal environment for those who score high in the facet of activity level

Excitement-seeking: Unlike assertiveness and activity level, this facet aligns well with the common understanding of extroversion. Someone who enjoys seeking excitement gets easily bored. They seek high levels of strong stimulations such as crowded places, cheerful events with loud music and bright lights. Such stimulation can be undesirable, inconvenient, and overwhelming to the more introverted counterparts. who tend to prefer more peaceful and relaxing surroundings.

Cheerfulness: Mood, bright emotions, and positive responses are what this facet  about. Cheerful people have relatively high levels of bright feelings, such as joy or enthusiasm, and positive interactions with others. People who have lower levels of cheerfulness experience fewer delights or optimism and are often perceived as less warm and positive towards others.

The absence of cheerfulness, however, does not necessarily mean there are only negative emotions. These are two different things and they are not correlated to each other. In reality, a majority of people tend to mistake these two matters and wrongly label the absence of cheerfulness as negativity.

Acquiring a thorough insight into the six facets would provide you with a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of extroversion. Looking at an extrovert, you can see more details into his or her behaviors, feelings, and reactions to daily situations.

2. Career recommendations for extroverts

Extroverts enjoy expressing themselves externally and interacting with others to exchange knowledge and make friends. An open, high-energy workplace that encourages verbal exchange and teamwork would be an ideal environment for extroverts. 

Extroverts excel in these jobs:
Lawyer / law consultant
Teacher / lecturer / professor
Sale manager / execution planner
Public relation staff
Nurse / caregiver
Human resources consultant
Tour guide
Project manager
Event planner
MC / radio speaker
Financial specialist
Social media influencer
Community service staff

Open working environments which encourage group-based activities and verbal interactions are ideal for extroverts

3. Career suggestions for introverts

For those who tend to conserve their feelings, energy, and want to gain full control of their work using minimal social interactions, a quiet job would be more suitable. Introverts thrive in a calm and peaceful environment because they can fully concentrate on the process without interruptions and distractions from others.

These suggested jobs are more appropriate for those who score low in extroversion:

Computer programmer
Web developer
Software engineer
Data analyst
Social media marketing
Interior / landscape / graphic designer
Librarian
Electrical engineering specialist
Scientist / researcher
Interpreter / translator
Writer / content creator / poet
Artist
Carpenter
Baker / private chef
Music composer
Photographer
Self-employed / freelancer

Librarian is one of the ideal jobs for those who enjoy a quiet and peaceful working environment.

4. The challenge of teaching introverts and educational approaches to unlock their potential

For young children with high levels of introversion, group discussions and engagement points in the classroom might not be the best approach to evaluate their actual ability. According to Susan Cain in her best-selling book, some young introverts have to pretend to be extroverts to fit in this education system for the sake of overall grades and other schooling benefits.

4.1 Introverted students tend not to excel in large groups

When introverted students are required to perform in large groups, they are likely to not perform well. Group-based tasks are designed in the way of bringing everyone an equal chance to speak up an opinion, raise a problem, and solve that problem together. 

However, while teachers think they have created an equal opportunity for all students, the reality is often different. Susan Cain pointed out that it often leads to “the most dominant student or the one who cares most about the grades doing all the tasks and taking over”. Introverted students would excel when performing the tasks individually in quiet surroundings , which allows their creativity and thoughtfulness to be maximized.

4.2 Technology can help introverts speak up their ideas

Technology-based platforms can ease the uncomfortable feelings and enable introverts to find their voice in classrooms and group activities. Game-based learning platforms, such as Gimkit and Kahoot, can assist teachers efficiently. For instance, teachers can set the response settings either in anonymous mode or public mode. Anonymous mode means only the teacher gets to know who provides this answer, while public mode allows the entire class to view the provider’s name. 

Introverts can be assertive, bold, and become competitive if they think it is necessary to behave so. As a result, public mode is an excellent opportunity to encourage competitiveness and public recognition. In a world that cannot stop talking, the power of introverts needs to be identified and recognized, especially in the classroom.

5. Teaching strategies to work with extroverted students

5.1 Approach extroverts with a smile to balance out extroversion and introversion

More often, extroverted students are more socially dominant  than their introverted counterparts. This can sometimes become a problem for teachers who want to pay equal attention to all students in the class. Approach young extroverts with a smile and remind him or her to tone it down a bit, so that teachers can have more interactions with other students.  

5.2 Extroverted students enjoy compliments and surprises

If introverted individuals perform better in quiet and calm surroundings, their counterparts enjoy expressing themselves verbally. For example, they are the ones who enjoy making demonstrations or coming up to the front of the classroom. They would feel valued and recognized if teachers compliment them on their initiative and enthusiasm

Cfchildren.org stated that extroverted students like to be surprised. Little surprises in the classroom helps to boost the engagement and excitement of young extroverts. They are more like a “curious cat” that gets nervous towards the surprise, yet excited at the same time. Teachers can leverage morning times to create little surprises as a positive feedback to extroverted students. This is a great way to level up their energy from the beginning of the day and make sure they are readily involved for the lesson. 

Conclusion: The hidden depth of extroversion, and the vital role of educators

The general expression of extroversion, based on popular definitions, might stop at friendliness and excitement seeking. Digging deeper into the six facets of this trait, we now know it also exhibits different dimensions of gregariousness, assertiveness, cheerfulness and activity level. 

Balancing the introversion and extroversion of the students in the classroom are very important. Teachers are encouraged to create multi-purpose activities that fit both types of students. Enhancing the advantage of technology, such as game-based learning platforms, could help teachers to modify and diversify the activities in their classroom to fit different preferences in extroversion. 

Reference:

The Big Five’s Agreeableness: An In Depth Analysis

Followed by a series of five personality traits from the Big Five personality model, the next personality dimension that we will look into is agreeableness. The word “agree” indicates the likelihood to say yes, to compromise, or to agree to do things, either for oneself or others. Agreeableness measures the tendency to be kind, friendly, cooperative, and supportive. It shows how well one gets along with with others in a group-based environment. 

Highly agreeable people exhibit prosocial forms of behavior. They tend to be more sociable, considerate, tender-minded, and are concerned with the welfare of others. Low scorers tend to be more tough-minded and consider their interests and benefits above others. Sometimes, they are perceived as cynical, domineering, and antagonistic. 

If you want to know how agreeable you are, we recommend you taking the Big Five Personality Test here 

1. The importance of agreeableness: generate positive thoughts and improve mental health

Agreeableness helps to form relationships with  peace and empathy, trust and harmonization. It also helps to minimize the possibility of conflicts and arguments. On an individual scale, agreeableness enables one to harbor and nurture positive thoughts and actions towards others. 

Agreeableness, if placed at the right place and to the right people, attracts positivity and reduce negativity

2. The six facets of agreeableness

According to the International Personality Item Pool, each dimension of the Big Five Personality Traits comprises six facets, or also known as sub traits. The facets of the conscientiousness domain are:

Trust: to believe that someone or something is initially reliable, ethical, and truthful. A trusting individual tends to believe people are well-intentioned and fair. The opposite of being trusting is skeptical. Skeptical individuals tend not to trust others easily without considering other aspects. They tend to base on various other factors, such as their personal experience, facts, or evidence, to trust a person.

Morality: This facet shows the desire to be sincere and candid as opposed in dealing with others. Those who have high levels of morality tend to lean towards being sincere and kind-hearted with others. Those with low levels of morality believe a certain amount of deception or manipulation is needed in communications and relationships. It should be noted that this facet is not about being wrong or right, but rather the degree an individual feels comfortable and pleasant to interact straightforwardly with others.

Cooperation: the willingness to work together with others for a common goal, purpose, or benefit. These people do not like confrontations and tend to compromise. They are often not concerned much with their own needs or interests. Those who tend not to cooperate efficiently with others are more competitive and prioritize their personal needs and benefits. 

According to Dr. Todd Grande, looking at the overall personality trait, cooperation is one of the facets to be associated the most with agreeableness, in terms of the popular conception. For instance, a manager would view an agreeable employee as cooperative toward his or her co-workers. 

According to Dr. Todd Grande, looking at the overall personality trait, cooperation is one of the facets to be associated the most with agreeableness, in terms of the popular conception. For instance, a manager would view an agreeable employee as cooperative toward his or her co-workers. 

Cooperation is considered the most associated facet to the agreeableness trait, especially in working environments,  based on the popular conception

Altruism: the willingness or the desire to help others. Altruistic people find it fulfilling to help others in need. People with low levels of altruism might appear to be helpful towards others, yet the way they see these kind actions is different. Instead of feeling self-fulfilling and joyful when seeing others receive help, they feel inconvenient and look at it as an imposition

Modesty: how willing someone is to claim himself or herself better than others. Modest people do not like making this claim and would rarely consider themselves at a higher position than others. The opposite of modest is arrogant people who act as if they are superior to others.

Sympathy: the ability to understand and resonate with other people’s feelings, particularly that of sad events and sorrows. They are better at identifying, understanding, and connecting with human sufferings. Less sympathetic people lack the ability to recognize and harmonize with sorrowful experiences others are going through. 

Sympathy, in different situations, is considered as justice versus mercy. These two aspects appear as two extremes of a spectrum, where sympathetic individuals tend to lean towards mercy, and less sympathetic ones tend to lean towards the justice side

Sympathy                                                                                                                                                                                 More
Sympathetic people can understand and resonate well with other people’s emotions

3. Suggested careers for highly agreeable people

Highly agreeable people enjoy assisting others and feel more fulfilled when seeing others getting better from the help they receive. An ideal working environment for agreeable people would be a place that allows them to build connections and make positive contributions to the community.

Potential job ideas for agreeable people:

Teacher / lecturer

Nurse / caregiver

NGO / NPO leader

Religious Leader

Counselor

Community service staff

4. Suggested careers for those with low levels of agreeableness

Those who tend to behave bold, assertive, and tough-minded are not suitable for community-related jobs. They find it hard to place others’ needs and benefits above or emotionally connect to others. These people strive best in environments that focus on the outcomes, welcome counter opinions, and allow their competitiveness to glow.

Potential jobs ideas for low scorers in the agreeableness trait:

Scientist / researcher

Politicians

Programmer

Data analyst

Manager / director / association leader

Accountant

Engineer / mechanic

Author / writing content creator

5.Interesting facts about agreeableness

5.1 Agreeable people shouldn’t be perceived as “less intelligent”

Being too agreeable might lead to some behaviors that could be regarded as less intelligent. Agreeable people place their needs and interests lower than that of others. For this reason, agreeable individuals are perceived as less intelligent, especially in competitive working environments. 

However, how agreeableness is related to intelligence depends on how one chooses to define intelligence. Studies found that agreeableness has zero correlation with objective tests of general intelligence

5.2 People who consider themselves superior to others tend to appear disagreeable

Disagreeable personalities were found in those who perceived themselves at a higher position than others, regardless of their actual ability. This is a study result from Furnham & Buchanan on “Personality, gender, and self-perceived intelligence.” This has significant implications because that means agreeableness is not a fixed trait but can also change fluidly. A person can be more agreeable to a superior but less so with someone in an inferior position.

5.3 Agreeable individuals are more likely to experience Placebo Effect

A study published in 2013 found that there is a higher likelihood for agreeable individuals to undergo the placebo effect. For agreeable participants, they appeared to be more relieved by the placebo effect than other subjects having lower levels of agreeableness. They are less likely to object to the experimenters, more motivated to please them, and more hopeful for positive outcomes. 

5.4 Agreeable individuals are less bothered by grammatical mistakes

Subtle errors in emails might annoy some people, yet this is exceptional for agreeable people. The way personality affects an individual’s reaction to email mistakes was thoroughly discussed in this study. The study results suggested that agreeable people are less sensitive to grammatical errors in emails. It would be wrong to claim that agreeable people have worse grammar than others. They simply do not want to exaggerate the minor mistakes and willing to pass them through.

5.5 Social media is mostly used for positively connecting with others, rather than complaining, by agreeable people

How personality affects the usage of social media platforms has become the subject for a study in 2013. According to the results, agreeable people are more likely to use social media to build and maintain positive connections, rather than a platform for complaints and judgemental opinions. Another interesting study found that agreeable job applicants are less likely to be found badmouthing others on Facebook.

Social Media Sharing and Mobile Phone Networking Concept, Businesswoman is Using Smartphone for Communication Chat While Drinking a Cup of Coffee. Technology Connection for Entertainment Media Network , #Aff, #Concept, #Networking, #Smartphone, #Businesswoman, #Phone #Ad
The primary purpose of social media – building connections – is utilized the most by highly agreeable people

6. Conclusion: agreeableness needs to be utilized efficiently in the right place

Most people fall somewhere between agreeableness and disagreeableness. Depending on the circumstance, agreeableness can be perceived as a strength or weakness. On the overall perspective, agreeableness is a personal positivity that shows trust, cooperation, and support. This is a good thing and has become the keystone ingredient for organizational harmonization. However, in circumstances where assertiveness and counter opinions are more welcomed and focused, it is better to be tough-minded and competitive to protect one’s self-benefits.

References:

Six facets of the agreeableness personality trait, Dr. Todd Grande

Agreeableness has a zero correlation with objective tests of general intelligence, DeYoung, 2011

There is a higher likelihood for agreeable individuals to undergo the placebo effect

Agreeable people are less sensitive to minor writing errors in emails

Social media is used for positive connection purposes by agreeable people

The 5 most popular personality frameworks

The effort to categorize humans according to temperaments and types dates back to thousands of years ago. In modern day, the number of personality-typing frameworks have actually proliferated and come in all forms of complexity, application and scientific validity.

On one side of the spectrum there is the infamous horoscope system which enjoys great popularity, but deemed almost superstitious among the more scientific-minded audience. On the other side is the likes of The Big 5 Model which is frequently quoted as the most scientifically validated framework but doesn’t seem to enjoy the same popularity as horoscope or MBTI.

Today, let’s us take a look at the 5 most popular frameworks and understand a little bit deeper about the origins and their applications.

1. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

The MBTI has an interesting back-story. It was authored by an American mother-daughter duo, Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, in the 1920s. They based their foundation on the work of Carl Jung, the famous Swiss Psychiatrist who developed the Theory of Typology. The two women contributed research and most importantly, created more comprehensive tests and systems of description to improve the applicability of Jung’s esoteric theory. Today the MBTI test is taken over 2 millions times every year.

The MBTI proposes four main ways in which the human mind categorizes and makes sense of information: Sensing, Intuition, Feeling and Thinking, forming the first two dichotomies of Sensing – Intuition and Feeling – Thinking respectively. In short, the more intuitive a person, the more abstract and imaginative are his thoughts. Meanwhile, a person may prefer to either make decisions based on moral values and beauty or logical reasoning instead.

The next dichotomy is Introversion – Extroversion. Introversion is a rather well-known concept heavily popularized in recent years by books such as Quiet: The Power of Introverts by Susan Cain. In the context of MBTI, it characterizes how a person draws his or her energy from. If he is energized by social setting, he is more extroverted. Meanwhile, introverts are drained by social interaction and gain energy from listening to his inner mind.

The final result after taking the test is a combination of 4 letters, resulting in a variation of 16 personality types.

16 mbti types.png
The 16 MBTI Types. Source: EntePhoto: By Ravenclawsome – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=61974268r

The MBTI is most frequently used for career planning, relationships, teamwork, self-understanding and personal growth. It is said that the majority of the Fortune 500 companies use the controversial practice of using MBTI for screening job candidates.

2. Enneagram

According to enneagraminstitute.com, modern enneagram is a synthesis of ancient wisdom traditions dated back as early as 345 AD. So there is no conclusive history about it, but there are several well-known pioneering figures including Armenia-born George Gurdjieff and Bolivia-born Ichazo, who was claimed to be the first person to put together the enneagram system.

Essentially, the Enneagram proposes 9 Higher Qualities or Holy Ideas corresponding to the three Centers of human intelligence, Thinking, Feeling, and Instinct.. Each Holy Idea also has a corresponding Virtue. The Virtues are essential qualities of the heart experienced by human beings when they are abiding in Essence. 

enneagram-9-types.jpeg
The 9 Main Enneagram types

As a person loses awareness and presence, falling away into the trance of the personality, the loss of awareness of the Holy Idea becomes a person’s Ego-fixation, resulting in his characteristic Passion. While everyone has the capacity to embody all of the Holy Ideas and Virtues, one pair of them is central to the soul’s identity, so the loss if it is felt most acutely, and the person’s ego is most preoccupied with recreating it, although in a futile, self-defeating way.

So the Enneagram is well-known for it’s 9-point star depicting the 9 main types and their corresponding movements. One arrow will show how a type move towards when healthy and the other shows how it most resembles when being unhealthy. Sound complicated? Not yet. One type can also have additional 1 or 2 wings which are secondary characteristics. The wing can only come from the adjacent type. A type also has 3 possible instinctual variants: social, sexual, and self-preservation.

enneagram-arrows-integration.jpg

Arrows of integration and disintegration

Source: Evert7h [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D
 

 

If MBTI focuses more on how the mind makes sense of information, the enneagram focuses on the underlying spiritual and emotional motives. There has been research showing correlation between MBTI and Enneagram types, but in general, the later expand significantly the understanding about a person’s typological make-ups. Enneagram is well-suited for self-awareness as well as application in career and relationship consultation.

3. Socionic

Socionics is a theory of how individuals process and select information. At its centre is the information metabolism model of the psyche, called Model A, and a model of interpersonal relations. It incorporates Carl Jung’s work on Psychological Types with Antoni Kępiński’s theory of information metabolism. From its core theories, socionic extends to categorize and predict individuals’ interpersonal, group dynamics, potential career, societal roles and more.

 

Aushra-photo

Socionics was developed in the 1970s and ’80s, primarily by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, also known as Aushra Augista. She is an economist, sociologist, and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University’s department of family science. Augusta believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics. 

 

The socionic test results give you a sociotype denoted by 4 letters, which look remarkably similar to the MBTI results. In fact, many sources agree that you can use your MBTI type as sociotype, just that for introverts, the J and P needs to be reserved. So if your MBTI type is INFP, your sociotype is INFJ and vice versa.

Socionics_Information_Elements_and_Dichotomies.png
The information dichtomies. Source: Wiki Commons

What makes Socionic distinct from MBTI is the 14 Intertype Relations. Using the Socionic relationship chart, you can quickly deduce the type of relationship that two societypes have. There is a ranking of how ideal a relationship is, from the most ideal (duality) to the less favorable such as Conflicting or Supervision. Ultimately, the description for each Relations shed more light on the nature of the interaction, giving insights to better understand and improve the situation.

Even though Socionic’s uses cover many topics including group interactions, career choice and personal value, its main purpose is still about understanding and describing intertype relationships.

4. Horoscope

The horoscope is also a synthesis of mankind’s tradition to observe the celestial bodies and assign divine meaning to them. Its system encapsulates 12 constellations captured as early as the Babylonian period in 1500 BC and finally set down in Ancient Greece with names similar to what we see today.

Zodiac_(PSF).png
The 12 Zodiac signs.  Source: Wiki Commons

On the basic level, there are 12 different signs in the Zodiac, or “circle of animal” corresponding to 12 consecutive periods on the calendar. They belong to 4 main elements: earth, water, air and fire. Each Zodiac sign is supposed to come with a particular set of characteristics and temperaments, which are often derived from the depiction of the sign itself and its element group. For example, the Taurus sign is depicted as a bull so people in this sign are stereotyped as stubborn and loyal. They are also steadfast and sensual because of the earth element.

Diving deeper into the system you will find a myriad of other considerations such as influencing of other signs depending on a person’s relative date of birth, the sun, the moon, governing planets and houses. Interested readers can find out more in detail these aspects in the many online resources available.

The zodiac, even though widely criticised as non-scientific and even a fad, enjoys huge popularity in modern culture. The description is an easy-to-use tool for self-understanding and guidance into career choices and relationship compatibility. Some sources even go as far as having daily or monthly fortune telling for each Zodiac sign.

 5. The Big-Five Personality Traits

The Big-Five personality model refers to the 5 basic traits which was widely used for research and journal of psychologists and scientists. It was first started and streamlined since 1930s by psychologists in an effort to produce more concise trait inventories for the field of personality research.

The five factors may be assessed using a number of measures, including self-report questionnaires. A subject is asked to read a number of descriptions or adjectives and to rate the accuracy with which they describe their own personality on a Likert scale (e.g. 1 – Strongly Disagree to 2 – Strongly Agree).

This is a quick description of the 5 traits under the Big-Five model:
Openness: Enjoy to explore and learn new things, being imaginative and have wide interests
Consciousness: People score high on this are methodical, organized, goal-oriented and reliable
Extraversion: Extraverts gain energy from social interactions, having qualities such as being talkative, outgoing and assertive
Agreeableness: People score high on this scale are more compassionate, coopperative and friendly
Neuroticism: Neurotic indivduals are more prone to negative emotions, often seem tense and moody while people score low on this are more self-assured and stress-resistant

The results of these tests estimate how high or low one is on each trait relative to other people. When many individuals take such tests their scores collectively shed light on issues such as how a particular trait tends to correlate with an outcome, such as success in a particular career.

As we can see, one reason the Big-Five is less popular even though it was claimed and refined to be more scientifically accurate, is because it is a rather new framework still pending ongoing research from the scientific communities. There are no central unifying theories or framework to enable a more in-depth exploration like the other 4 system does.

References:
https://www.16personalities.com/personality-types

https://careerassessmentsite.com/tests/myers-briggs-tests/about-the-myers-briggs-type-indicator/

https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelbarthur/2018/09/16/the-strange-history-behind-the-mbti-and-what-that-can-mean-for-career-owners/#4630d48a2fb3

https://owlcation.com/humanities/History-of-the-Enneagram-Gurdjieff

https://www.the16types.info/vbulletin/content.php/130-Introduction-to-Socionics

https://time.com/5315377/are-zodiac-signs-real-astrology-history/

https://www.psychologistworld.com/personality/five-factor-model-big-five-personality