Teacher (ENFJ) – Type Description

ENFJ is one of the 16 personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), characterized by extraversion, intuition, feeling and judging. ENFJs, also known as “protagonists” or “teachers”, are known for their outgoing, benevolent, and empathetic nature. They are responsible and organized individuals who are able to effectively plan and execute projects. They possess strong leadership skills and have their eye on tomorrow. However, they have a tendency to be too optimistic, which can lead to disappointment when things don’t work out as planned.

ENFJs are excellent at understanding and interpreting the emotions of people, and providing support and guidance to those in need. They strongly rely on their intuition, and are good at reading body language and picking up on unspoken cues. They are also highly focused on their relationships, often putting the needs and desires of others before their own. They tend to approach situations with a diplomatic mindset, rather than focusing only on logistics, strategy and other tactics. They are more interested in finding a solution that is fair and just for everyone, rather than winning at all costs.

Cognitive Functions of ENFJs:

To gain insight into the characteristics of ENFJ personalities, it is helpful to understand the dominant and auxiliary cognitive functions that drive them. According to the MBTI system, each personality type has a set of cognitive functions that they use most frequently, which leads to consistent patterns and characteristics. For ENFJs, 

Dominant Fe: Individuals who have dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) function use it to gauge the emotional atmosphere of a group and evaluate the impact of their own behavior on others. They gather information about others’ feelings and thoughts based on subtle cues such as tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions. Once they have gathered this information, dominant Fe users adjust their own behavior and actions accordingly in order to create a more positive and harmonious social environment.

As a dominant function, Fe helps ENFJs to be sensitive to others’ needs, to be tactful in their communication and to be able to empathize with others. It also helps them to make decisions that are emotionally intelligent and sensitive to the feelings of everyone involved.

Auxiliary Ni:. Introverted Intuition (Ni) function is concerned with perceiving and understanding patterns and connections in the world. People who have Introverted Intuition (Ni) as their auxiliary function tend to have a strong sixth sense and can often sense whether something is or isn’t going to happen. They are also able to see the potential in people and ideas, and identify the best course of action.

In ENFJs, their auxiliary Ni operates on the unconscious level, and helps them interpret and synthesize information, develop a big-picture view, and make decisions based on their internal understanding of the world. Their intuition also gives them a deeper insight into their own feelings and ideas, as well as the motivations of those around them.

Combining their auxiliary Ni with their dominant Fe allows ENFJs to take into account both the logical and emotional implications of their choices, which can help them to make decisions that are both practical and compassionate. Their Fe-Ni combination allows them to acknowledge a person’s perspective as valid, without needing logical or factual justification. This makes them great listeners, who have an unparalleled understanding of personal and interpersonal dynamics.


Like all other personality types, ENFJs have their own set of strengths, some of which include:

  • Leadership: ENFJs are natural leaders and are skilled at motivating and inspiring others. Due to their dominant Fe, they are able to empathize with others and communicate effectively, which allows them to handle difficult conversations and build strong teams. They are also skilled at seeing the bigger picture, addressing potential problems, and reevaluating their course of action in order to achieve their goals. 
  • High Emotional Intelligence: ENFJs are emotionally intelligent people. They are skilled at reading and understanding the emotions of others, which allows them to build strong relationships and create a positive environment at work and home.
  • Reliability: ENFJs are highly responsible and always fulfill their commitments. They take other people’s opinions of them very seriously, and hate to let others down. Hence, they are always willing to go the extra mile to perform their duties well, so that they may receive positive feedback and acknowledgment.
  • Passion for life: ENFJs are rarely bored and always have something interesting to do. They have a wide range of interests and actively pursue their hobbies. This enthusiasm and energy can be contagious, and they can inspire others to try new things and explore their own interests.


ENFJs may have some potential weaknesses that could impact their personal life, relationships, as well as their performance and effectiveness in their workplace. These weaknesses may include the following.

  • Difficulty Setting Boundaries: ENFJs may have difficulty setting boundaries in their personal and professional lives, as their dominant Fe often puts the needs of others before their own. This can lead to burnout and neglect of their own needs and responsibilities.
  • Over-identification with others: ENFJs have the ability to empathize and connect with others by absorbing their emotions, characteristics and beliefs, sometimes even to the extent of unconsciously mimicking them. At its extreme, this leads ENFJs to over-identify with others to the point where they are unable to differentiate between other people’s feelings or burdens and their own.
  • Struggling with difficult decisions: ENFJs are often overly focused on ensuring everyone gets along and maintaining harmony in their personal and work lives. They want to give equal value to every person’s feelings involved in a matter, and may struggle with making unpopular or difficult decisions in the face of a conflict. 
  • Oversensitivity to criticism: ENFJs may take criticism very personally and can become overly sensitive to it. This weakness is a result of the ENFJs’ dominant Fe. They may struggle to separate their own self-worth from their professional performance, and may have difficulty accepting constructive criticism.

Career choice

Some suitable career options for ENFJs include:

  • Leadership and management roles: ENFJs have all the qualities to excel at leadership and management roles. They can effectively communicate and connect with others (due to their Fe), and navigate potential risks and challenges (due to their Ni). This makes them suitable for roles such as human resources, management, and executive positions, in which they can use their natural ability to lead and bring out the best in others.
  • Marketing and media: ENFJs are able to understand complex ideas and explain them in a way that is easy for others to understand. Moreover, due to their clear and effective communication skills, they possess strong persuasive abilities. This makes them suitable for roles in media, journalism, and marketing. 
  • Social work and counseling: Using their Fe, ENFJs are able to build relationships with others based on mutual understanding and trust. Their Ni further equips them to navigate through difficulties and issues, whether their own or others’. This makes them suitable for roles such as counseling and social work, in which they can use their natural ability to connect with others and help them through difficult times. 
  • Teaching: ENFJs make amazing teachers, with their built-in ability to influence and inspire those around them. They are able to connect with their students on a deep level, and help them recognize and achieve their highest potential.


ENFJs have a strong work ethic and are dedicated to achieve the goals of the organization. As employees, they are team-oriented and love working with others. Using their Fe, they can easily form meaningful connections with new team members and enjoy every opportunity to help them improve their skills and work performance. As employers, they tend to be nurturing and supportive, and prioritize the growth and development of their employees. The ability to connect with others makes them popular managers among their subordinates. They can foster a friendly and close-knit relationship with their employees and may even socialize with them outside of work.

They have a strong desire to mentor and encourage others, however they may tend to be overbearing in this process, which can lead to them coming across as condescending to their employees and colleagues. Their dominant Fe allows them to quickly pick up on when their input is not well received and adjust their approach accordingly.

ENFJs may become discouraged in settings where ongoing conflicts are common. They often get so caught up in their attempts to restore harmony that they get side tracked from the task at hand. Their strong desire to mentor and counsel others can cause them to lose sight of the team’s objectives, unless they actively redirect their focus. Furthermore, being dominant extraverted feelers, they value being appreciated and acknowledged for their efforts and ideas, but if they are constantly subjected to negative feedback and criticism, they become worn out and unable to perform their duties correctly. 


ENFJs thrive in relationships where there is a strong emotional connection and a sense of mutual understanding. They are known to be very affectionate, and they enjoy expressing their feelings physically. They tend to be very romantic and enjoy planning special outings and surprises for their partners. Their intuition allows them to anticipate their partner’s needs and desires, and they are always willing to go the extra mile to ensure their partner’s happiness. 

Since ENFJs love helping others reach their potential, they have a tendency to become overly invested in their partner’s growth, and consider their partner’s goals their own. As a consequence, their partner may start to feel pressured, as the ENFJ tries to force them to make changes they are not yet ready to make. If they don’t tread carefully, ENFJs may end up creating an unhealthy dynamic in their relationship. They must learn to nurture their partner’s growth without being overly forceful.

As parents, ENFJs are known to be very patient and understanding with their children. They provide constructive criticism without being overly critical or harsh, and are able to create a warm and loving home environment that is conducive to learning and growth. They are also known to be good listeners and are able to provide guidance and advice to their children as they navigate through different stages of their lives.

In conclusion, ENFJs are natural nurturers, who are known for their warmth, empathy, and a deep-rooted need to help others. They are great at connecting with people and have a special knack for understanding the needs and feelings of others. They are born leaders who are able to bring out the best in their teams and inspire them to greatness. With their strengths, ENFJs are well-equipped to make a positive impact on their communities, families, and the world. 

Cheat Sheet: Function Stack of Each MBTI Type

The 8 cognitive functions

The four extroverted functions are oriented outwards towards the external world, they are:

  • Extroverted Sensing (Se): Enjoying the finer aspects of life in food, fashion. Being physically in tune with the world
  • Extroverted Intuition (Ne): From one observation, deriving ten different ideas and possibilities
  • Extroverted Thinking (Te): Real-world practicality, results-driven, things that can be written down on a resume
  • Extroverted Feeling (Fe): Being able to “read the room”, attuned to the social atmosphere, tailoring your words to your audience

The four introverted functions are oriented inwards towards the subjective personal world

  • Introverted Sensing (Si): Seeing and remembering things as they were in the past, taking things step by step
  • Introverted Intuition (Ni): From ten observations, deriving one single theory that explains everything. Projecting the one future path that most likely will happen
  • Introverted Thinking (Ti): Logical and consistent, having various categories to ensure that everything has its own place in a water-tight system
  • Introverted Feeling (Fi): Having a clear idea of individual desires, values, tastes. Living life authentically without being affected by what the rest of the world does

Cheat sheet: Use this table for quick reference to see which functions are in each type

DominantAuxiliaryTertiaryInferior / Primitive
ISFJIntroverted Sensing (Si)Extroverted Feeling (Fe)Introverted Thinking (Ti)Extroverted Intuition (Ne)
ESFJExtroverted Feeling (Fe)Introverted Sensing (Si)Extroverted Intuition (Ne)Introverted Thinking (Ti)
INTPIntroverted Thinking (Ti)Extroverted Intuition (Ne)Introverted Sensing (Si)Extroverted Feeling (Fe)
ENTPExtroverted Intuition (Ne)Introverted Thinking (Ti)Extroverted Feeling (Fe)Introverted Sensing (Si)
ISTJIntroverted Sensing (Si)Extroverted Thinking (Te)Introverted Feeling (Fi)Extroverted Intuition (Ne)
ESTJExtroverted Thinking (Te)Introverted Sensing (Si)Extroverted Intuition (Ne)Introverted Feeling (Fi)
INFPIntroverted Feeling (Fi)Extroverted Intuition (Ne)Introverted Sensing (Si)Extroverted Thinking (Te)
ENFPExtroverted Intuition (Ne)Introverted Feeling (Fi)Extroverted Thinking (Te)Introverted Sensing (Si)
INFJIntroverted Intuition (Ni)Extroverted Feeling (Fe)Introverted Thinking (Ti)Extroverted Sensing (Se)
ENFJExtroverted Feeling (Fe)Introverted Intuition (Ni)Extroverted Sensing (Se)Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ISTPIntroverted Thinking (Ti)Extroverted Sensing (Se)Introverted Intuition (Ni)Extroverted Feeling (Fe)
ESTPExtroverted Sensing (Se)Introverted Thinking (Ti)Extroverted Feeling (Fe)Introverted Intuition (Ni)
INTJIntroverted Intuition (Ni)Extroverted Thinking (Te)Introverted Feeling (Fi)Extroverted Sensing (Se)
ENTJExtroverted Thinking (Te)Introverted Intuition (Ni)Extroverted Sensing (Se)Introverted Feeling (Fi)
ISFPIntroverted Feeling (Fi)Extroverted Sensing (Se)Introverted Intuition (Ni)Extroverted Thinking (Te)
ESFPExtroverted Sensing (Se)Introverted Feeling (Fi)Extroverted Thinking (Te)Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Are You A Thinker Or Feeler?

Can I ask if you are left-handed or right-handed? The chance is you are a right-handed person, because it is the majority of our population. How do you know that you are right-handed? It is a very obvious question almost without a need to explain. If we need to break down the reasons, there are three ways you know that your type is a right-handed: 1) The frequency of you using your right hand in a day is higher than your left and 2) Your right hand feels a lot more natural and real and 3) Your right hand will objectively be better at handling heavier objects or more complex tasks. 

That is how you should think about your opposing function of Thinking and Feeling as well. Do keep the above ideas of left and right hand in mind as we further learn about the true definition of Thinking and Feeling in Jungian psychology.

If you are a visual learner, you can also follow this video below:

The definitions

Carl Jung

Besides Introversion and Extroversion, Thinking and Feeling are the second dimension in analytical psychology (the third dimension is Intuition versus Sensing). These concepts were first introduced in the early 20th century by Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961), a famous Swiss psychiatrist who developed the idea of Psychological Types, the precursor to the extremely popular Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test and framework.

My philosophy for Our Human Minds have always been to adhere as much as possible to the original understanding and work of Carl Jung to help readers understand accurately the cognitive functions. It is a longer path, but trust me, it is more rewarding and surer way to achieve more accurate self-understanding than purely taking the online test and read the descriptions of the 16 MBTI personalities!

Unlike left and right hand, Thinking and Feeling preferences in analytical psychology are more distinct, serving very different purposes. Your two hands do not oppose each other, but Thinking and Feeling do by definition. Hence, being aware of them and knowing how to develop your weaker function and learn to make them synchronize holds the potential for not only more productivity but also psychological maturity and wholeness.

The definition of  “Thinking” and “Feeling” in Jungian psychology are easily confused with the more layman definitions that we use in our daily languages. They should not be confused with logic versus emotion. You need to understand them in a more fundamental way, that they are evaluative & rational processes to judge incoming information, whether something is right or wrong, good and bad…

Thinking and Feeling aim to clearly distinguish between the two distinct preferences for decision-making: impersonal versus personal/interpersonal respectively. The easiest way to visualize this difference is in the common stereotype between men versus women in our society. Men are known to prefer to “solve problems” and break down problems “logically” while on the other hand, women simply want to be listened to, to be empathized and understood. 

Thinkers (both men and women) prefer to solve problems objectively

While this is a stereotype, indeed, some of the surveys  have shown that there is a slight preference (55%) among men for Thinking and a strong preference (75%) of women who have a Feeling preference. How much of this is the surveyed individuals’ true preferences and how much is a result of social expectation & conditioning, is for another debate. However, I would like to add that based on this survey, thinking that all men are or have to be super logical or women have to be relationship-oriented is a gross simplification and unfair treatment to both sexes.

To break it down further, thinking manifests itself as preference for using objective and measurable frameworks for clear-cut decision making. It is about using objective criteria, conceptual frameworks, pros and cons, structures, logical systems… People with Thinking preference value and take pride in being efficient, precise, goal and task-oriented. Something is good if it is placed in the right category, gives better measurable results, more efficient etc.

On the other hand, Feeling places stronger emphasis on human’s welfare, values and preferences. As an introverted function, it’s about knowing a strong moral sense of right and wrong, of feeling an urge to help the less fortunate, to be humanitarian, to overcome unfairness and restore equality. Extroverted version is about about maintaining a harmonious atmosphere (when hosting a house party for example), making sure common pleasantries and “civilized” etiquettes are adhered to, while making sure everyone has a good time.

DefinitionImpersonal evaluationInterpersonal and value-based decision-making
Related conceptsobjective criteria, pros and cons, measurable results, conceptual frameworks, logical systemsvalues, morality, harmony, personal preferences, gut feels of right and wrong

Quick Exercise : What is your true preference based on the above definition?
You might need to think about when you are younger or in a more comfortable place at home without any stress of work or “have to” pressure. Social expectation and work stresses might force us to over-compensate to the point of losing sight of who we truly are, like Feeling men are often expected to appear logical and tough, or your jobs have required you to develop your weaker function, even if in your younger years you are the opposite.

Develop Thinking

This section is more relevant for Feeler who has a natural strength in making decisions based on personal values or harmony, but as a result, devoting less consciousness energy in using systemic/impersonal perspectives. We will look at concrete steps that you can take to gradually build up confidence in using the skills and become more holistic in decision making.

Playing a big part of your ego, Feeling – the preference for using value and personal-preference based approach, is part of your identity. The cause that you care about, friends and family, the social connection and status that represent your deepest conviction and meaning of life, are valid. As much as it’s important to acknowledge the other side of the equation, in the end, Thinking should serve in a supporting role and not to dominate your preference for  personal values or interpersonal harmony.

Just like this two-people bike, you should let your dominant function to take the lead and guide the other function, not the other way round!

The development of your weaker functions and achieving wholeness is a life-long quest, so the instruction below serves as a general direction and examples of the kind of steps you can take to develop Thinking.

Remember that the basic definition of Thinking is the use of impersonal systems, framework and measurable results and data. Hence, you can:

  1. Learn from someone close to you who is strong in Thinking like your family members or colleagues. Talk to them more or reflect on the time you guys spend time together. Learn about how they conduct themselves differently, understand why they do it and see if you can learn and integrate some of their techniques or philosophy.
  2. Develop interests in activities that require strong impersonal reasoning and decision making such as chess, finance, computer games…
  3. Integrate productivity tools such as planner, calendar, deadlines and KPIs clearly for both personal work and managing others.
  4. Take courses, read books, watch videos… on productivity, time and project management.
  5. Learn to say No. It’s very natural for Feeler to go with the flow and say yes to keep harmony. Saying No doesn’t mean being harsh or rude if you can explain yourself clearly. It doesn’t have to be black and white either, you can also negotiate what you’d like to do and what you cannot do or you feel is not fair. It’s hard at first, but it’s an essential skill that will go a long way!

Knowing other ways to develop your Thinking side that can help other readers? Feel free to comment below!

Develop Feeling

This is more relevant to Thinking dominant type. Again, it’s important that you acknowledge and embrace your identity as a Thinker and develop Feeling as a support for a more holistic decision making process. Your Thinking function should still be in the driver seat!

  1. Find friends, family or colleagues who you know well and you are fairly certain they are stronger in Feeling. Get to know them more and reflect on how they conduct things differently and see whether you can integrate some of their physiology and methods to your daily life.
  2. Engage in reflective activities like meditation, arts, writing… to reflect on your values and what’s important to you. Remember, it’s a gradual process that requires patience and regular practices.
  3. Engage in social activities and roles that you have to interact more with people. Recognise some of your biases and see it from a more positive light when it comes to social relationships. 
  4. Immerse yourself in nature, away from distraction of work and technology, to hear and embrace your inner voices, values and feelings.

Are you a Thinker that has other ways that work? Feel free to share below.

I hope you now have a clearer understanding of the distinction between these rational dimensions of Thinking versus Feeling. In reality, these two preferences never exist as standalone in a healthy person’s psyche but work in tandem. But since they are mutually exclusive/cancelling out, it’s natural to prioritize and put your conscious energy into one while “send to exile” the other, giving little conscious energy to nourish and maintain it.

If possible, you should learn further about how Introversion and Extroversion are combined with Thinking and Feeling to give rise to 4 distinct Cognitive Processes/Functions: Introverted Thinking, Extroverted Thinking, Introverted Feeling and Extroverted Feeling. This breakdown will bring in a whole new level of depth and opportunities for self-understanding and development. Good luck!


Type Fundamentals Guide @mbti-notes

Psychological types by CG. Jung

Intuition vs Sensing: Two Distinct Ways Our Mind Takes In Information

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality test and framework have popularized the concepts of extroversion, introversions and the cognitive processes that you probably have heard of: Thinking vs Feeling, Intuition vs Sensing. However, these concepts were first introduced in the early 20th century by Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961), a famous Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology.

Understand the fundamentals of these processes is crucial for any further learning and reading of MBTI-related theories and Jungian psychology. At the very least, you will be able to decipher the various functions that make up your personality type and how they interact together to form your unique cognitive patterns.

So let’s dive in to the first pairs of two opposite processes: Intuition and Sensing! If you prefer to watch instead of reading, below is a detailed video explanation I have made on the same topic:

The Definitions

This dichotomy is how we perceive and make sense of information, either in a dominantly concrete or abstract manner.

Concrete information is tangible sensory information, something that you can feel, see, taste, hear. With regards to time, it’s also related to what is here and now, what’s currently going on in society and most immediate environment. Jung termed this process of accessing concrete information: sensing and those with this preference are called sensors

Abstract information is intangible conceptual information, such as reading between the lines, metaphors, meaning behind things, future possibilities … The person likes to think far ahead, using past data to foresee future outcomes and behaviors. The process of using abstract perception is termed Intuition and the people who prefer it over sensing are called intuitives.

We both can use sensing and intuition at will, we have preference to prioritize one over the other. Our preferred side is more dominant, natural, and more developed like the left and right hand. Sensors are generally better at noticing and remembering details of a discussion while intuitives often only remember the key points or vibe. 

 Intuition dominantSensing dominant
How an intuitive and sensor notice a book in bookshop differently (in order
of what the person see first)
Essence of what’s it about
Relevance to me
Seem a bit worn out
Eww one corner is torn off!
The cover design is corny
What is it about?
Example of how an intuitive and sensing person would notice an object differently

According to statistical studies, Sensors significantly outnumber Intuitives in the general population.(70-75% of the population are sensors). It is a big advantage if you are aware of the sensing-intuitive difference because this dichotomy is often a common source of misunderstanding in work and personal relationships.

Sensors look for concrete facts and details and take things as they are and work with them. Intuitives look for abstract patterns and connections because they prefer to deal with the potential of objects, believing that reality can be different or changed, with a hopeful lens for the future. Sensors are more realistic and grounded while intuitives are more idealistic.

When Sensors intuit for too long, they feel impatient with too much theory and abstract thoughts. Meanwhile, intuitives can easily be put off by feeling forced to explain or sequence “every little detail” and would rather get back to entertaining new or interesting possibilities to restore equilibrium to their personality.

Evolutionary and social roles

Many would think that Intuition – the ability for more abstract thinking should exist only in humans or modern humans but the truth is both Intuition and Sensing exist in animals too. A lot of animals are known for their gut feeling or ability to memorise patterns (like salmon or birds that migrate thousands of miles to the places they are born). Of course, abstract thinking is more pronounced in humans because we have developed tools like languages and the concept of time, which significantly boosts our capacity for abstract thinking.

Any MBTI types are capable of both, as mentioned above. The average humans, regardless of types, are capable of comprehending and using way more abstraction than any other species on planet earth. I suspect that the part of Intuition and Sensing in our brains are pretty distinctive and mutually exclusive. However, why don’t we all evolve to become abstract thinkers? 

Because both ways of thinking are important to get any society or any project to function. It is a matter of spectrum. For example, Einstein came up with the E=MC2 formula, which is an example of highly abstract work! But society don’t just exist out of a formula! We need to further “concretize” the abstraction into practical and applicable tasks – the realm of Sensing. We further apply it to build space craft, atomic bomb… then we need people who like to take specific instruction on how to make that part of the space craft, what color is the craft, what materials is it made of… down to the smallest details!

What does it mean for you?

I hope the overview above gives you a more accurate and objective view of the two primary modes of information perception in the population. Keep it in mind when you interact next with other people and see if you can tell if they are sensors or intuitives. Two people of the same types will have an easier time communicating while you should be a bit more mindful of people who do not share the same preference. In essence, intuitive people love abstract and somewhat theoretical discussion while sensing-dominant people want to know the details and concrete steps.

No preference is better than the others. We have our respective social roles and strengths and weaknesses. In particular, if you are an intuitive, you might be the minority but with great potential for big-pictured thoughts and acquisition of abstract and innovative information. If you ever feel misunderstood or broken in some ways cause you are not in tune or don’t care about the latest social trends or norms, it’s ok. There are other people like you and there are exciting discovery ahead when things start to make sense and you will finally discover your true identity and purpose, even if it takes slightly longer than usual.